This section is from the book "Scientific American Reference Book. A Manual for the Office, Household and Shop", by Albert A. Hopkins, A. Russell Bond. Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.

Usual inclination of pipes.

1 | in. | in | 12 ft. | = minimum fall for house drains; |

1 | " | " | 16 " | = minimum fall for land drains; |

1 | " | " | 40 " | = minimum fall for sub-drains for houses; |

1 | " | " | 100 " | = minimum fall for main drains for houses; |

1 | " | " | 150 " | =fall of mountain torrents; |

1 | " | " | 230 " | = " " rivers and rapid currents; |

1 | " | " | 280 " | = fall of strong currents; |

1 | " | " | 340 " | = " " ordinary rivers with good current; |

1 | " | " | 440 " | = fall of winding rivers subject to inundations with slow current; |

1 | " | " | 480 " | = fall of water channels, supply pipes to reservoirs and small canals; |

1 | " | " | 570 " | = fall of large canals; |

1 | " | " | 1,000 " | = very slow current, approaching to stagnant water. |

Discharge through pipes.

Discharge in 24 hours divided by 1,440 = discharge per min.; discharge in cubic feet per minute X 9,000 = imperial gallons per day of 24 hours; discharge in cubic feet per minute X 11,000 = U. S. gallons per day of 24 hours; discharge in cubic feet per second X 2.2 = cubic yards per minute; discharge in cubic feet per second X 6.24 =imperial gallons per second; discharge in cubic feet per second X 7.48 = U. S. gallons per second; discharge in cubic feet per second X 133 = cubic yards per hour; discharge in cubic feet per second X 375 = imperial gallons per minute; discharge in cubic feet per second X 450 == U. S. gallons per minute; discharge in cubic feet per second X 2,400 = long tons per day of 24 hours; discharge in cubic feet per second X 2,700 = short tons per day of 24 hours; velocity in feet per second X 0.68= mile per hour; velocity in feet per second X 60 = feet per minute; velocity in feet per second X 20 = yards per minute; pressure head of water in feet = pressure of water in lbs. per square foot X 0.016; pressure of water in lbs. per square foot = head in feet X 62.32.

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