In regard to the danger of using the lighter petroleum oils, the following, under the head of "Naphtha and Benzine under False Names," is taken from Prof. C. F. Chandler's article on "Petroleum" in Johnson's Cyclopedia. He says: "Processes have been patented, and venders have sold rights throughout the country, for patented and secret processes for rendering gasoline, naphtha, and benzine non-explosive. Thus treated, these explosive oils, just as explosive as before the treatment, are sold throughout the country under trade names. These processes are not only totally ineffective, but they are ridiculous. Roots, gums, barks, and salts are turned indiscriminately into the benzine, to leave it just as explosive as before. No wonder we have kerosene accidents, with agents scattered through the country selling county rights and teaching retail dealers how to make these murderous 'non-explosive' oils. The experiments these venders make to deceive their dupes are very convincing. None of the petroleum products are explosive per se, nor are their vapors explosive under all circumstances when mixed with air. A certain ratio of air to vapor is necessary to make an explosive mixture. Equal volumes of vapor and air will not explode; three parts of air and one of vapor gives a vigorous puff when ignited in a vessel; five volumes of air to one of vapor gives a loud report. The maximum degree of violence results from the explosion of eight or nine parts of air mixed with vapor. It requires considerable skill to make at will an explosive mixture with air and naphtha, and it is consequently very easy for the vender not to make one. In most cases the proportion of vapor is too great, and on bringing a flame in contact with the mixture it burns quietly. The vender, to make his oil appear non-explosive, unscrews the wick-tube and applies a match, when the vapor in the lamp quietly takes fire and burns without explosion. Or he pours some of the 'safety oil' into a saucer and lights it. There is no explosion, and ignorant persons, biased by the saving of a few cents per gallon, purchase the most dangerous oils in the market. It is not possible to make gasoline, naphtha, or benzine safe by any addition that can be made to it. Nor is any oil safe that can be set on fire at the ordinary temperature of the air. Nothing but the most stringent laws, making it a State prison offense to mix naphtha and illuminating oil, or to sell any product of petroleum as an illuminating oil or fluid to be used in lamps, or to be burned, except in air gas machines, that will evolve an inflammable vapor below 100 degrees, or better, 120 degrees Fahrenheit, will be effectual in remedying the evil. In case of an accident from the sale of oil below the standard, the seller should be compelled to pay all damages to property, and, if a life is sacrificed, should be punished for manslaughter. It should be made extremely hazardous to sell such oils." Prof Chandler is professor of analytical chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia College.

There is no substance on earth, or under the earth, which will chemically combine with naphtha, or that will destroy its peculiar volatile and explosive properties. The manufacturers of petroleum products have exhausted the whole resources of chemistry to make this product available as a safe burning oil, and their inability to do so proclaims the fact that it cannot be done. Chemistry has shown that naphtha, and, in fact, the other products of petroleum, will not part with their hydrogen or change the nature of their compounds, except by decomposition from a union with oxygen, that is, by combustion. These humbugs, who deceive people for their own gains, may put camphor, salt, alum, potatoes, etc., into naphtha, and call it by whatever fancy name they please. The camphor is dissolved, the salt partially; potatoes have no effect whatever. The camphor may disguise the smell of the naphtha, and sometimes myrhane or burnt almonds may be used for the same purpose. But, no matter what is used, the liability to explosion is not lessened in any degree. The stuff is always dangerous and always will be. There is not much danger in the use of kerosene, if it is of the standard required by law in several of the States. At the same time petroleum is dangerous under certain conditions. Where oil is heated it is more or less inflammable, and, in fact, inflammability is only a question of temperature of the oil, after all. Burning oils should be kept in a moderately cool place, and always with care. Of course, if a lighted lamp is dropped and broken, the oil is liable to take fire, though the lamp may be put out in the fall, or the light drowned by the oil, or the oil not take fire at all. This will be the effect if the oil is cool and of high flash test. When a lamp is lighted, and remains burning for some time, it should never be turned down and set aside. The theory is, that while lighting, a certain supply of gas is created from the oil, and that when the wick is turned down that supply still continues to flow out, and not being consumed, forms an inflammable gas in the chimney, which will explode when a sufficient quantity of air is mixed with it in the presence of light, which may happen if a person blows down the chimney; but a lamp should never be extinguished in that way. A good, high test kerosene oil can be made with ordinary care as safe as sperm oil, though, of course, it is not so safe as a matter of fact. We are sure to hear of it when an accident happens, but we never hear of the reckless use of kerosene where an accident does not occur, and yet there are few things so generally carelessly handled as burning oils.--Fireman's Journal