Mr. Payen was the first to make the observation that the greatest amount of phosphate of chalk is found in the teguments adjoining the farinaceous or floury mass. This observation is important from two points of view; in the first place, it shows us that this mineral aliment, necessary to the life of animals, is rejected from ordinary bread; and in the next place, it brings a new proof that phosphate of chalk is found, and ought to be found, in everyplace where there are membranes susceptible of exercising vital functions among animals as well as vegetables.

Phosphate of chalk is not in reality (as I wished to prove in another work) a plastic matter suitable for forming bones, for the bones of infants are three times more solid than those of old men, which contain three times as much of it. The quantity of phosphate of chalk necessary to the constitution of animals is in proportion to the temperature of those animals, and often in the inverse ratio of the weight of their bones, for vegetables, although they have no bones, require phosphate of chalk. This is because this salt is the natural stimulant of living membranes, and the bony tissue is only a depot of phosphate of chalk, analogous to the adipose tissue, the fat of which is absorbed when the alimentation coming from the exterior becomes insufficient. Now, as we know all the parts constituting the berry of wheat, it will be easy to explain the phenomena of panification, and to conclude from the present moment that it is not indifferent to reject from the bread this embryous membrane where the agents of digestion are found, viz., the phosphoric bodies and the phosphate of chalk.