He declared there was no pain, and we needed no such assertion, for there was not the first manifestation from him that he was undergoing such a severe operation.

Another case, the same day, when I had to extract the superior wisdom teeth on both sides for an intelligent young lady of eighteen years, where I had to use two pairs of forceps on each tooth (equivalent to extraction of four teeth), and she was so profoundly affected afterward that she could; not tell me what had been done other than that I had touched her four times. She was overcome from its effects for at least a minute afterward. She was delighted.

With such severe tests I fear very little the result in any case I can have them do as I bid.

There can be no mistake that there is a specific action from something. It cannot be personal magnetism or mesmeric influence exerted by me, for such cases are rare, averaging about 10 per cent, only of all classes. Besides, in mesmeric influence the time has nothing to do with it; whereas, in my cases, it cannot last over a half minute or minute at most. It cannot be fear, as such cases are generally more apt to get hurt the worse. It is not diversion of mind alone, as we have an effect above it.

There is no better way of testing whether pain has been felt than by taking the lacerated or contused gums of the patient between the index finger and thumb and making a gentle pressure to collapse the alveolar borders; invariably, they will cry out lustily, that is pain! This gives undoubted proof of a specific agent. There is no attempt upon my own part to exert any influence over my patients in any way other than that they shall believe what I say in regard to giving them no pain and in the following of my orders. Any one who knows how persons become mesmerized can attest that it was not the operator who forces them under it against their will, but it is a peculiar state into which any one who has within themselves this temperament can place themselves where any one who knows how can have control. It is not the will of the operator. I therefore dismiss this as unworthy of consideration in connection with rapid breathing.

Then you may now ask, To what do I attribute this very singular phenomenon?

Any one who followed, in the earlier part of this paper, the course of the argument in my soliloquy, after twenty years had elapsed from my observation upon myself of the analgesic effects of chloroform, can almost give something of an answer.

That you may the more easily grasp what I shall say, I will ask you, If it be possible for any human being to make one hundred inhalations in a minute and the heart's action is not increased more than ten or twenty pulsations over the normal, what should be the effect upon the brain and nerve centers?

If the function of oxygen in common air is to set free in the blood, either in the capillaries alone, or throughout the whole of the arterial circulation, carbonic acid gas; and that it cannot escape from the system unless it do so in the lungs as it passes in the general current--except a trace that is removed by the skin and kidneys--and that the quantity of carbonic acid gas set free is in exact relation to the amount of oxygen taken into the blood, what effect must be manifested where one hundred respirations in one minute are made--five or six times the normal number--while the heart is only propelling the blood a very little faster through the lungs, and more feebly--say 90 pulsations at most, when to be in proportion it should be 400 to 100 respirations to sustain life any length of time?

You cannot deny the fact that a definite amount of oxygen can be absorbed and is absorbed as fast as it is carried into the lungs, even if there be one hundred respirations to the minute, while the pulsations of the heart are only ninety! Nature has made it possible to breathe so rapidly to meet any emergency; and we can well see its beautiful application in the normal action of both the heart and lungs while one is violently running.

What would result, and that very speedily, were the act of respiration to remain at the standard--say 18 or 20--when the heart is in violent action from this running? Asphyxia would surely end the matter! And why? The excessive exercise of the whole body is setting free from the tissues such an amount of excretive matter, and carbon more largely than all the others, that, without a relative action of the lungs to admit the air that oxygen may be absorbed, carbonic acid gas cannot be liberated through the lungs as fast as the waste carbon of the overworked tissues is being made by disassimilation from this excess of respiration.

You are already aware how small a quantity of carbonic acid in excess in the air will seriously affect life. Even 2 to 3 per cent, in a short time will prove fatal. In ordinary respiration of 20 to the minute the average of carbonic acid exhaled is 4.35.

From experiments long ago made by Vierordt--see Carpenter, p. 524--you will see the relative per cent, of carbonic acid exhaled from a given number of respirations. When he was breathing six times per minute, 5.5 per cent of the exhaled air was carbonic acid; twelve times, 4.2; twenty-four times, 3.3; forty-eight times, 3; ninety-six times, 2.6.

Remember this is based upon the whole number of respirations in the minute and not each exhalation--which latter could not be measured by the most minute method.

Let us deduct the minimum amount, 2.6 per cent, of carbonic acid when breathing ninety-six times per minute, from the average, at twenty per minute, or the normal standard, which is recorded in Carpenter, p. 524, as 4.35 per minute, and we have retained in the circulation nearly 2 per cent. of carbonic acid; that, at the average, would have passed off through the lungs without any obstruction, and life equalized; but it not having been thrown off as fast as it should have been, must, of necessity, be left to prey upon the brain and nerve centers; and as 2 to 3 per cent., we are told, will so poison the blood, life is imperiled and that speedily.