By Sir Frederick Bramwell, V.P. Inst. C.E., F.R.S.,
Chairman of the Council of the Society of Arts.

I am quite sure the section will agree with me in thinking it was very fortunate for us, and for science generally, that our president refrained from occupying the time of the section by a retrospect, and devoted himself, in that lucid and clear address with which he favored us, to the consideration of certain scientific matters connected with engineering, and to the foreshadowing of the directions in which he believes it possible that further improvements may be sought for. But I think it is desirable that some one should give to this section a record, even although it must be but a brief and an imperfect one, of certain of the improvements that have been made, and of some of the progress that has taken place, during the last fifty years, in the practical application of mechanical science, with which science and its applications our section is particularly connected. I regret to say that, like most of the gentlemen who sat on this platform yesterday, who, I think, were, without exception, past presidents of the section, I am old enough to give this record from personal experience. Fifty years ago I had not the honor of being a member, nor should I, it is true, have been eligible for membership of the association; but I was at that time vigorously making models of steam-engines, to the great annoyance of the household in which I lived, and was looking forward to the day when I should be old enough to be apprenticed to an engineer. Without further preface, I will briefly allude to some of the principal developments of a few of the branches of engineering. I am well aware that many branches will be left unnoticed; but I trust that the omissions I may make will be remedied by those present who may speak upon the subject after me.

I will begin by alluding to