To determine the action of this tissue through its presence, take 100 grammes of wheat, wash it and remove the first coating by decortication; then immerse it for several hours in lukewarm water, and dry afterwards in an ordinary temperature. It should then be reduced in a small coffee mill, the flour and middlings separated by sifting and the bran repassed through a machine that will crush it without breaking it; then dress it again, and repeat the operation six times at least. The bran now obtained is composed of the embryous membrane, a little flour adhering to it, and some traces of the teguments Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5. This coarse tissue-weighs about 14 grammes, and to determine its action through its presence, place it in 200 grammes of water at a temperature of 86°; afterwards press it. The liquid that escapes contains chiefly the flour and cerealine. Filter this liquid, and put it in a test glass marked No. 1, which will serve to determine the action of the cerealine.

The bran should now be washed until the water issues pure, and until it shows no bluish color when iodized water and sulphuric acid are added; when the washing is finished the bran swollen by the water is placed under a press, and the liquid extracted is placed, after being filtered, in a test tube. This test tube serves to show that all cerealine has been removed from the blades of the tissue. Finally, these small blades of bran, washed and pressed, are cast, with 50 grammes of lukewarm water, into a test tube, marked No. 3; 100 grammes of diluted starch to one-tenth of dry starch are then added in each test tube, and they are put into a water bath at a temperature of 104° Fahrenheit, being stirred lightly every fifteen minutes. At the expiration of an hour, or at the most an hour and a half, No. 1 glass no longer contains any starch, as it has been converted into dextrine and glucose by the cerealine, and the iodized water only produces a purple color. No. 2 glass, with the same addition, produces a bluish color, and preserves the starch intact, which proves that the bran was well freed from the cerealine contained. No. 3 glass, like No. 1, shows a purple coloring, and the liquid only contains, in place of the starch, dextrine and glucose, i. e, the tissue has had the same action as the cerealine deprived of the tissue, and the cerealine as the tissue freed from cerealine. The same membrane rewashed can again transform the diluted starch several times. This action is due to the presence of the embryous membrane, for after four consecutive operations it still preserves its original weight. As regards the remains of the other segments, they have no influence on this phenomenon, for the coating Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5, separated by the water and friction, have no action whatever on the diluted starch. Besides its action through its presence, which is immediate, the embryous membrane may also act as a ferment, active only after a development, varying in duration according to the conditions of temperature and the presence or absence of ferments in acting.

I make a distinction here as is seen, between the action through being present, and the action of real ferments, but it is not my intention to approve or disapprove of the different opinions expressed on this subject. I make use of these expressions only to explain more clearly the phenomena I have to speak of, for it is our duty to bear in mind that the real ferments only act after a longer or shorter period of development, while, on the other hand, the effects through presence are immediate.

I now return to the embryous membrane. Various causes increase or decrease the action of this tissue, but it may be said in general that all the agents that kill the embryous membrane will also kill the cerealine. This was the reason why I at first attributed the production of dark bread exclusively to the latter ferment, but it was easy to observe that during the baking, decompositions resulted at over 158° Fah., while the cerealine was still coagulated, and that bread containing bran, submitted to 212° of heat, became liquefied in water at 104°. It was now easy to determine that dark flours, from which the cerealine had been removed by repeated washings, still produced dark bread. It was at this time, in remembering my experiences with organic bodies, I determined the properties of the insoluble tissue, deprived of the soluble cerealine, with analogous properties, but distinguished not alone by its solid organization and state of insolubility, but also by its resistance to heat, which acts as on yeast. There exists, in reality, I repeat, a resemblance between the embryous membrane and the yeast; they have the same immediate composition; they are destroyed by the same poisons, deadened by the same temperatures, annihilated by the same agents, propagated in an analogous manner, and it might be said that the organic tissues endowed with life are only an agglomeration of fixed cells of ferments. At all events, when the blades of the embryous membrane, prepared as already stated, are exposed to a water bath at 212°, this tissue, in contact with the diluted starch, produces the same decomposition; the contact, however, should continue two or three hours in place of one. If, instead of placing these membranes in the water bath, they are enveloped in two pounds of dough, and this dough put in the oven, after the baking the washed membranes produce the same results, which especially proves that this membrane can support a temperature of 212° Fah. without disorganization. We shall refer to this property in speaking of the phenomena of panification.