In 1831, Neilson's hot blast specification had been published for two and a half years only. The Butterly Company had tried the hot blast for the first time in the November preceding the meeting of the British Association. The heating of the blast was coming very slowly into use, and the temperature attained when it was employed was only some 600 degrees. The ordinary blast furnace of those days was 35 to 40 feet high, and about 12 feet diameter at the boshes, and turned out about 60 tons a week. It used about 2½ tons of coal per ton of iron, and no attempt was made to utilize the waste gases, whether escaping in the form of gas or in the form of flame, the country being illuminated for miles around at night by these fires. The furnaces were also open at the hearth, and continuous fire poured out along with the slag.

In 1881, blast furnaces are from 90 ft. to 100 ft. high, and 25 ft. in diameter at the boshes; they turn out from 500 to 800 tons a week. The tops and also the hearths are closed, and the blast - thanks to the use of Mr. E.A. Cowper's stoves - is at 1,200 degrees. The manufacture of iron has also now enlisted in its service the chemist as well as the engineer, and among those who have done much for the improvement of the blast furnaces, to no one is greater praise due than to Mr. Isaac Lowthian Bell, who has brought the manufacture of iron to the position of a highly scientific operation. In the production of wrought iron by the puddling process, and in the subsequent mill operations, there is no very considerable change, except in the magnitude of the machines employed, and, in the greater rapidity with which they now run. In saying this, I am not forgetting the various "mechanical puddlers" which have been put to work, nor the attempts that have been made by the use of some of them to make wrought iron direct from the ore; but neither the "mechanical puddler" nor the "direct process" has yet come into general use; and I desire to be taken as speaking of that which is the ordinary process pursued at the present in puddled iron manufactures. In 1831, a few hundredweights was the limit of weight of a plate, while in 1881, there may readily be obtained, for boiler-making purposes, plates of at least four times the weight of those that were made in 1831. I may, perhaps, be allowed to say that there is an extremely interesting blue-book of the year 1818, containing the report of a parliamentary committee which sat on boiler explosions, and I recommend any mechanical engineer who is interested in the history of the subject to read that book; he will find it there stated that in the North of England there was a species of engines called locomotives, the boilers of which were made of wrought iron, beaten, not rolled, because the rolled plate was not considered fit; it was added that if made of beaten iron the boiler would last at least a year.

In 1831, thirteen years later, the dimensions of rolled plates were no doubt raised; but few then would have supposed it possible there should be rolled such plates as are now produced for boiler purposes, and still fewer would have believed that in the year 1881 we should make, for warlike purposes, rolled plates 22 inches in thickness and 30 tons in weight. I have said there is very little alteration in the process of making wrought iron by puddling, and I do not think there is likely to be much further, if any, improvement in this process, because I believe that, with certain exceptions, the manufacture of iron by puddling is a doomed industry. I ventured to say, in a lecture I delivered at the Royal Institution three years ago on "The Future of Steel," that I believed puddled iron, except for the mere hand wrought forge purposes of the country blacksmith, and for such like purposes, would soon become a thing of the past. Mr. Harrison, the engineer of the North-Eastern Railway, told me that about eighteen months ago the North-Eastern Railway applied for tenders for rails in any quantities between 2,000 and 10,000 tons, and they issued alternative specifications for iron and for steel. They received about ten tenders. Some did not care to tender for iron at all; but when they did tender alternatively, the price quoted for the iron was greater than for the steel. I have no doubt whatever that, in a short time, it will be practically impossible to procure iron made by the puddling process, of dimensions fit for many of the purposes for which a few years ago it alone was used.

With respect to steel, in 1831 the process in use was that of cementation, producing blistered steel, which was either piled and welded to make shear steel, or was broken into small pieces, melted in pots, and run into an ingot weighing only some 50 lb. or 60 lb. At that time steel was dealt in by the pound; nobody thought of steel in tons. In 1881, we are all aware that, by Sir Henry Bessemer's well-known discovery, carried out by him with such persistent vigor, cast iron is, by the blowing process, converted into steel, and that of Dr. Siemens' equally well-known process (now that, owing to his invention of the regenerative furnace, it is possible to obtain the necessary high temperature), steel is made upon the open hearth. We are, moreover, aware that, by both of these processes, steel is produced in quantities of many tons at a single operation, with the result that as instanced in the case of the North-Eastern rails, steel is a cheaper material than the wrought iron made by the puddling process. One cannot pass away from the steel manufacture without alluding to Sir Joseph Whitworth's process of putting a pressure on the steel while in a tried state. By this means, the cavities which are frequently to be found in the ingot of a large size are, while the steel is fluid, rendered considerably smaller, and the steel is thereby rendered much more sound. In conclusion of my observations on the subject of iron and steel manufacture, I wish to call attention to the invention of Messrs. Thomas & Gilchrist, by which ores of iron, containing impurities that unfitted them to be used in the manufacture of steel, are now freed from these impurities, and are thus brought into use for steel-making purposes.