This section is from "Scientific American Supplement Volumes 275, 286, 288, 299, 303, 312, 315, 324, 344 and 358". Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.
This apparatus consists of a cylindrical tank, L, of 3 mm. thick boiler plate, mounted vertically on a masonry base and designed to be constantly fed with cool water. It contains a second cylindrical tank, M, of 6 mm. thick galvanized iron. This latter tank is provided with a cast-iron cover, on which are mounted the worm, N, and a pipe, O, connected with the tube of the pressure gauge. To the base of the tank, M, there is affixed, on a cast iron thimble, a cock, P, for setting up a communication between the tank and the pipe, R, which returns to the freezer through the cock, B (Fig. 1).
VINCENTS ICE MACHINE. FIG. 9.--VIEW OF THE UNDERSIDE OF THE SAME.
The cold water requisite for condensation enters the tank, L, through a pipe terminating in a pump or a reservoir. The waste water flows off through the tubulure, Q. The tank is emptied, when necessary, through the blow-off cock, S.
VINCENTS ICE MACHINE. FIG. 10.--PLAN OF THE WORM.
As has been remarked above, the cylinder, A, is filled with chloride of methyl. The pump, through suction, produces in this cylinder a depression from which there results the evaporation of a portion of the chloride of methyl, and consequently a depression of temperature which is transmitted to the incongealable liquid circulating in the tubes, and to the receptacles (carafes or otherwise) containing the water to be converted into ice.
The pump sucks in the vapor of mythyl chloride through the pipe, H, and through its suction valves, and forces it into the chamber, D, through its delivery valves, and from thence into the worm, N, through the pipe, J. Under the influence of compression and of the water contained in the tank, L, the methyl chloride liquefies and falls into the receptacle, M, from whence it returns to the freezer through the pipe, R.
Two pressure-gauges, one of them fixed on the freezer and the other on the liquefier, permit of regulating the running of the machine. The vacuum in the freezer is 0 to ½ atmosphere, and the pressure in the liquefier is 3 to 4 atmospheres. These apparatus make opaque ice, but will likewise produce transparent, if a pump for injecting air is adjoined. This, however, doubles the time that it takes to effect the freezing, and carries with it the necessity of doubling the number of moulds to have the same quantity of ice.
The cost price of ice made by this system depends evidently on the price of coal in each country, on the perfection of the boiler and motor, as well as on the power of the freezing machine. Putting the coal at 20 francs per ton, and the consumption at 2 kilogrammes per horse and per hour, ice may be obtained at a cost of about half a centime per kilogramme. The apparatus shown in the accompanying figures have been constructed according to the following data:
Production of ice per hour............ 25 kilogrammes. Production of heat units per hour..... 2.5 grammes. Quantity of ice produced per kilogramme of coal burned........... 5 kilogrammes. Water of condensation per hour........ 0.75 cubic meter.
These machines are employed not only for the manufacture of ice, but also in breweries for cooling the air of the cellars and fermenting rooms, or that of the vats themselves; in manufactories of chemical products; in distilleries; in manufactories of aerated waters, etc.
They may also be used in the carrying of meats and other food products across the ocean, and, in a word, in all industries in which it is necessary to obtain artificial cold.
The power necessary to operate apparatus that produce 25 kilogrammes per hour is about that of 3 horses.--Annales Industrielles.