The apparatus employed at present for making gaseous beverages are divided into two classes - intermittent apparatus based on chemical compression, and continuous ones based on mechanical compression.

The first are simple in appearance and occupy small space, but their use is attended with too great inconveniences and losses to allow them to be employed in cases where the manufacture is of any extent, so the continuous apparatus are more and more preferred by those engaged in the industry.

Continuous apparatus, however, other than those that we now propose to occupy ourselves with, are not without some defects, for the gas is produced in them intermittingly and at intervals, and more rapidly than it is used, thus necessitating the use of a gasometer, numerous and large washers, complicated piping, and, besides, of an acid cock.

To get rid of such drawbacks, it became necessary to seek a means of rendering the production of the gas continuous, and of regulating it automatically without the aid of the operator. Mr. Mondollot has obtained such a result through a happy modification of the primitive system of the English engineer Bramah. He preserves the suction and force pump but, while applying it to the same uses, he likewise employs it, by the aid of a special arrangement, so as to distribute the sulphuric acid automatically over the chalk in the generator, and to thus obtain a regular and continuous disengagement of carbonic acid gas. The dangers and difficulties in the maneuver of an acid cock are obviated, the gasometer and its cumbersome accessories are dispensed with, and the purification is more certain, owing to the regularity with which the gas traverses the washers.



In the accompanying plate we have figured three types of these apparatus. The first that we shall describe is arranged for the use of bicarbonate of soda. This apparatus consists (1) of a generator, C D, (2) of a double washer G G, (3) of a suction pump, P, and (4) of a saturator, S (See Figs 1 to 9).

The Generator

This consists of a cylindrical leaden receptacle, D, on the bottom of which rests a leaden bell containing apertures, c, at its base. A partition, c, into which is screwed a leaden tube, C, containing apertures divides the interior of the bell into two compartments. The upper of these latter is surmounted by a mouth, B, closed by a clamp, and through which the bicarbonate of soda is introduced. A definite quantity of water and sulphuric acid having been poured into the receptacle, D, a level tends to take place between the latter and the bell, C, the liquid passing through the apertures. But the acidulated water, coming in contact with the soda, sets free carbonic acid gas, which, having no exit, forces the water back and stops the production of gas until the apparatus is set in motion. At this moment, the suction of the pump causes a new inflow of acidulated water upon the soda, from whence another disengagement of gas, and then a momentary forcing of the water, whose level thus alternately rises and falls and causes a continuous production of gas proportionate with the suction of the pump.

The consumption of soda and acid is about 2 kilogrammes each for charging 100 siphons or 150 bottles. The bicarbonate is known to be used up when the liquid in the generator is seen to descend to the bottom of the water level, n, fixed to the vessel, D.

The Washer (Figs 1 and 4) - The gas, on leaving the generator, enters the washer through a bent copper pipe, R. The washer is formed of two ovoid glass flasks G G, mounted on a bronze piece, L, to which they are fixed by screw rings, l, of the same metal. The two flasks, G G, communicate with each other only through the tinned-copper tube q, which is held in the mounting q, of the same metal. This latter is screwed into the piece, L, and contains numerous apertures, through which the gas coming in from the pipe, R, passes to reach the upper flask, G. The gas is washed by bubbling up through water that has been introduced through the cock, R. After it has traversed both flasks, it escapes through the copper pipe, p, into which it is sucked by the pump, P.

The Pump (Figs 1, 5 and 6) - This consists of a cylindrical chamber, P, of bronze, bolted to a bracket on the frame, and cast in a piece, with the suction valve chamber, P, in which the valve, p, plays. It is surmounted by the distributing valve chamber P2. This latter is held by means of two nuts screwed on to the extremity of the rods, p3, connected with the shell, E, of the distributing-cock, E. In the shell, E, terminates, on one side, the pipe, p, through which enters the gas from the washer, and, on the other, the pipe i, that communicates with a feed-reservoir not shown in the cuts. The cock E, permits of the simultaneous regulation of the entrance of the gas and water. Its position is shown by an index e, passing over a graduated dial, e. From the distributing valve chamber, P2 the pipe, s, leads the mixture of water and gas under pressure into

The Saturator, S (Figs 1, 7 and 9) - This consists of a large copper vessel, s, affixed to the top of the frame through the intermedium of a bronze collar h, and a self closing bottom H. This latter is provided with two pipes, one of which, s, leads the mixture of water and carbonic acid forced by the pump, and the other, b, communicates with the siphons or bottles to be filled. The pipe, b, is not affixed directly to the bottom, but is connected therewith through the intermedium of a cock, r. The object of the broken form of this pipe is to cause the pressure to act according to the axis of the screw, r, which is maneuvered by the key, r2.

The water under pressure, having been forced into the vessel, S, is submitted therein to an agitation that allows it to dissolve a larger quantity of gas. Such agitation is produced by two pairs of paddles, J J, mounted at the extremity of an axle actuated by the wheel, A, through the intermedium of gearings, g and g.

The course of the operation in the saturator may be followed by an inspection of the water level, n, seen at the front and side in Figs. 2 and 3. This apparatus, in which the pressure reaches 4 to 6 atmospheres in the manufacture of Seltzer water or gaseous lemonade in bottles, and from 10 to 12 atmospheres in that of Seltzer water in siphons, is provided also with a pressure gauge, m, and a safety valve, both screwed, as is also the tube, n2, into a sphere, S, on the top of the saturator.

Apparatus for Using Carbonate of Lime (Figs 2, 3, and 10) - When chalk is acted upon by sulphuric acid, there is formed an insoluble sulphate which, by covering the chalk, prevents the action of the acid from continuing if care be not taken to constantly agitate the materials. This has led to a change in the arrangement of the generator in the apparatus designed for the use of chalk.

It consists in this case of a leaden vessel, D, having a hemispherical bottom set into a cylindrical cast iron base, K, and of an agitator similar to that shown in Fig. 11, for keeping the chalk in suspension in the water. These latter materials are introduced through the mouth, B (Fig. 3). Then a special receptacle, C, of lead, shown in detail in Fig. 10, and the cock, c, of which is kept closed, is filled with sulphuric acid. The acid is not introduced directly into the vessel, C, but is poured into the cylinder, C, whose sides contain numerous apertures which prevent foreign materials from passing into the siphon tube c, and obstructing it.

To put the apparatus in operation, the acid cock, c, is opened and the wheel, A, is turned, thus setting in motion both the pump piston, P, and the agitator, within S and D. Then the play of the pump produces a suction in the washers and from thence in the generator and causes the acid in the vessel, C, to flow into the generator through the leaden siphon tubes, c. Coming in contact with the chalk in suspension, the acid produces a disengagement of gas which soon establishes sufficient pressure to stop the flow of the acid and drive it back into the siphon tube. The play of the pump continuing, a new suction takes place and consequently a momentary flow of acid and a new disengagement of gas. Thus the production of the latter is continuous, and is regulated by the very action of the pump, without the operator having to maneuver an acid-cock. The latter he only has to open when he sets the apparatus in operation, and to close it when he stops it.

The arrangement of the washer is the same as in the preceding apparatus, save that a larger cylindrical copper reservoir, G', is substituted for the lower flask. The pump and saturator offer nothing peculiar.

A bent tube, u, which communicates with the generator, D, on one side, and with a cylindrical tube, V, ending in a glass vessel on the other, serves as a safety-valve for both the generator and the acid vessel.

The consumption of chalk is about 2.5 kilogrammes, and the same of acid, for charging 100 siphons or 150 bottles. The apparatus shown in the figure is capable of charging 600 siphons or 900 bottles per day.

An Apparatus Completely Mechanical in Operation (Fig. 11). - This apparatus consists of two very distinct parts. The saturator, pump, and driving shaft are supported by a hollow base, in whose interior are placed a copper washer and the water-inlet controlled by a float-cock. This part of the apparatus is not shown in the plate. The generator, partially shown in Fig. 11, is placed on a base of its own, and is connected by a pipe with the rest of the apparatus. It consists of two similar generators, D, made of copper lined with lead, and working alternately, so as to avoid all stoppages in the manufacture when the materials are being renewed. The pipe, d, connecting the two parts of the apparatus forks so as to lead the gas from one or the other of the generators, whence it passes into the copper washer within the base, then into the glass indicating washer, and then to the pump which forces it into the saturator.

Each of the generators communicates by special pipes, a, with a single safety vessel, V, that operates the same as in the preceding apparatus. The agitator, Q, is of bronze, and is curved as shown in Fig. 11.

The production of this type of apparatus is dependent upon the number of siphons that can be filled by a siphon filler working without interruption. - Machines, Outils et Appareils.