We give opposite illustrations of Schreiber's apparatus for revivifying bone-black or animal charcoal. The object of revivification is to render the black fit to be used again after it has lost its decolorizing properties through service--that is to say, to free its pores from the absorbed salts and insoluble compounds that have formed therein during the operation of sugar refining. There are two methods employed--fermentation and washing. At present the tendency is to abandon the former in order to proceed with as small a stock of black as possible, and to adopt the method of washing with water and acid in a rotary washer.
Figs. 1 and 2 represent a plan and elevation of a bone-black room, containing light filters, A, arranged in a circle around wells, B. These latter have the form of a prism with trapezoidal base, whose small sides end at the same point, d, and the large ones at the filter. The funnel, E, of the washer, F, is placed in the space left by the small ends of the wells, so that the black may be taken from these latter and thrown directly into the washer. The washer is arranged so that the black may flow out near the steam fitter, G, beneath the floor. The discharge of this filter is toward the side of the elevator, H, which takes in the wet black below, and carries it up and pours it into the drier situated at the upper part of the furnace. This elevator, Figs. 3 and 4, is formed of two vertical wooden uprights, A, ten centimeters in thickness, to which are fixed two round-iron bars the same as guides. The lift, properly so-called, consists of an iron frame, C, provided at the four angles with rollers, D, and supporting a swinging bucket, E, which, on its arrival at the upper part of the furnace, allows the black to fall to an inclined plane that leads it to the upper part of the drier.
The left is raised and lowered by means of a pitch-chain, F, fixed to the middle of the frame, C, and passing over two pulleys, G, at the upper part of the frame and descending to the mechanism that actuates it. This latter comprises a nut, I, acting directly on the chain; a toothed wheel, K, and a pinion, J, gearing with the latter and keyed upon the shaft of the pulleys, L and M. The diameter of the toothed wheel, K, is 0.295 of a meter, and it makes 53.4 revolutions per minute. The diameter of the pinion is 0.197 of a meter, and it makes 80 revolutions per minute. The pulleys, M and L, are 0.31 of a meter in diameter, and make 80 revolutions per minute. Motion is transmitted to them by other pulleys, N, keyed upon a shaft placed at the lower part, which receives its motion from the engine of the establishment through the intermedium of the pulley, O. The diameter of the latter is 0.385 of a meter, and that of N is 0.58. They each make 43 revolutions per minute.
FIG. 1.--ELEVATION OF BONE-BLACK REVIVIFYING PLANT (SCHREIBER'S SYSTEM.)
FIG. 2.--PLAN VIEW.
FIG. 3.--LATERAL VIEW OF ELEVATOR.
FIG. 4.--FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR.
FIG. 5.--CONTINUOUS FURNACE FOR REVIVIFYING BONE-BLACK.
The elevator is set in motion by the simple maneuver of the gearing lever, P, and when this has been done all the other motions are effected automatically.