At first sight it would probably appear that no good mortar could be made from such refuse as has been described, but having passed through the furnace, the clinkers are, of course, perfectly clean, and with good lime make a really strong and excellent mortar. They are also largely used for the foundation of roadways.

The number of men employed is as follows: Two furnace men in the daytime and two at night. They work from midnight on Sundays to 2 P.M. on Saturdays, the fires being fully charged and left to burn through the Sundays. One foreman, who attends also to the running of the engine, and one mortar man. A watchman attends while the workmen are off.

In addition to a destructor, there is at the Burmautofts depot a "carbonizer" kiln, in which the sweepings of the vegetable markets are burned into charcoal. The carbonizer consists of eight vertical cells, in two sets or stacks of four, separated by a space containing two double furnaces, back to back, there being a double furnace also at each end of the eight cells. Each of the stacks of four cells is 15 feet 6 inches high; the ends and middle parts, forming the tops of the furnaces, being 6 feet high. The block of brick work containing the eight cells and furnaces is 26 feet 6 inches long and 12 feet 4 inches wide at the floor level. Each cell is 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet, and about 10 feet deep, with a chamber below about 3 feet deep, into which the charred material falls and is completely burned. The top of the cells is level with the upper platform, and they are fed through a loose cover, which is immediately replaced. Inside the cells cast-iron sloping shelves are hung upon the walls so that their upper edges touch the walls, but the lower edges are some inches off, so that the hot air of the furnaces passes upward behind the shelves round the four sides of the cell in a spiral manner, and out near the top into a vertical flue, which conducts it down to the horizontal flue at the bottom, which leads to the chimney.

The charcoal is withdrawn from the bottom of the heating chamber through a sliding plate 2 feet above the floor, and is wheeled red hot to the charcoal cooler, which is a revolving cylinder, nearly horizontal, kept cool by water falling upon it, and delivers the charcoal in two degrees of fineness at the end. It is worked by a small attached engine, supplied with steam from the boiler before mentioned. Each cell of the carbonizer can reduce to charcoal 50 cwt. of vegetable refuse in twenty four hours, but at Leeds not quite so much is put through. The quantity of market refuse passed through six cells of the carbonizer varies from 3 to 10 tons a day, and averages about 4½ tons, from which 15 cwt. of charcoal is obtained. The fuel for burning the charcoal is derived from the ash pit refuse, some selected loads being for that purpose passed over a sloping screen fixed between the upper platform and the furnace floor, the fine ashes which pass through the screen being taken away to the manure heaps, and the combustible parts to the furnaces of the carbonizer.

In this way a good deal of the ash pit refuse is got rid of; it is often one-twelfth part of the whole quantity.

The carbonizer and the destructor are set 33 feet apart, to allow room for drawing the furnaces and for the mortar mills, but the space is hardly sufficient. One man is employed in attending to the carbonizer.

Besides the openings at the top of the destructor through which the ash pit refuse is fed into the cells, there is a larger opening in each cell, kept covered usually, through which bed mattresses ordered by the medical sanitary office to be destroyed can be put into the cells. These openings are midway between the central openings and the furnace doors, and whatever is put into the cells through these comes into immediate contact with the fire. Advantage is taken of these openings for the destruction of dead animals and diseased meat, and as much as 20 tons in a year have been passed through the destructor.

The whole works are roofed over. The lower floor is open on two sides, but the upper one is closed in, with weather boarding at Burmantofts and with corrugated iron at Armley Road. At the former place the works were in some measure experimental, and the platform was constructed of timber, but at Armley Road it is of plate-iron girders, with brick arching, weight being considered advantageous in reducing the vibration of carting heavy loads over it.

The cost of each depot has been £4,500, exclusive of land, of which about an acre is required for the destructor, carbonizer, inclined road, weigh office, and space. A supply of water is necessary, a good deal being required for cooling the clinkers. The population of the two districts belonging to these works is about 160,000.

The author has no longer any connection with the works described, and for the recent experience of their working he is indebted to Mr. John Newhouse, the superintendent of the sanitary department of the corporation.