8. Acer saccharinum, L. (sugar or bird's eye maple).--A North American tree, forming extensive forests in Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The wood is well known as a cabinet or furniture wood. It has been tried for engraving, but it does not seem to have attracted much notice. Mr. Scott says it is sufficiently good, so far as the grain is concerned. From this it would seem not to promise favorably.
9. Brya ebenus, Δ. DC.--A small tree of Jamaica, where the wood is known as green ebony, and is used for making various small articles. It is imported into this country under the name of cocus wood, and is used with us for making flutes and other wind instruments. Mr. Worthington Smith considers that the wood equals bad box for engraving purposes.
10. Pyrus communis, L. (common pear).--A tree averaging from 20 to 40 feet high. Found in a wild state, and very extensively cultivated as a fruit tree. The wood is of a light brown color, and somewhat resembles limewood in grain. It is, however, harder and tougher. It is considered a good wood for carving, because it can be cut with or across the grain with equal facility. It stands well when well seasoned, and is used for engraved blocks for calico printers, paper stainers, and for various other purposes. Pear-wood has been tried for engraving purposes, but with no great success. Mr. Scott's opinion of its relative value is referred to under pai'cha wood (Euonymus sieboldianus).
11. Amelanchier canadensis. L. (shade tree or service tree of America).--A shrub or small tree found throughout Canada, Newfoundland, and Virginia. Of this wood, Porcher says, in his "Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests": "Upon examining with a sharp instrument the specimens of various southern woods deposited in the museum of the Elliott Society, ... I was struck with the singular weight, density, and fineness of this wood. I think I can confidently recommend it as one of the best to be experimented upon by the wood engraver."
12. Cratoegus oxyacantha, L. (hawthorn).--A well-known shrub or small tree in forests and hedges in this country. The wood is very dense and close grained. Of this wood, Mr. Scott reports that it is by far the best wood after box that he has had the opportunity of testing.
13. Eugenia procera, Poir.--A tree 20 to 30 feet high, native of Jamaica, Antigua, Martinique, and Santa Cruz. A badly seasoned sample of this wood was submitted to Mr. R.H. Keene, who reported that "it is suited for bold, solid newspaper work."
14. Cornus florida, L. (North American dogwood).--A deciduous tree, about 30 feet high, common in the woods in various parts of North America. The wood is hard, heavy, and very fine grained. It is used in America for making the handles of light tools, as mallets, plane stocks, harrow teeth, cogwheels, etc. It has also been used in America for engraving.
In a letter from Prof. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum, Brookline, Massachusetts, quoted in the Kew Report for 1882, p. 35, he says: "I have been now, for a long time, examining our native woods in the hope of finding something to take the place of boxwood for engraving, but so far I am sorry to say with no very brilliant success. The best work here is entirely done from boxwood, and some Cornus florida is used for less expensive engraving. This wood answers fairly well for coarse work, but it is a difficult wood to manage, splitting, or rather 'checking,' very badly in drying." This, however, he states in a later letter, "can be overcome by sawing the logs through the center as soon as cut. It can be obtained in large quantities." Mr. R.H. Keene, the engraver before referred to, reports that the wood is very rough, and suitable for bold work.
15. Rhododendron maximum, L. (mountain laurel of North America).--Of this wood it is stated in Porcher's "Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests," p. 419, that upon the authority of a well-known engraver at Nashville, Tennessee, the wood is equaled only by the best boxwood. This species of Rhododendron "abounds on every mountain from Mason and Dixon's line to North Georgia that has a rocky branch." Specimens of this wood submitted to Mr. Scott were so badly selected and seasoned that it was almost impossible to give it a trial. In consideration of its hardness and apparent good qualities, further experiments should be made with it.
16. Rhododendron californicum.--Likewise a North American species, the wood of which is similar to the last named. Specimens were sent to Kew by Professor Sargent for report in 1882, but were so badly seasoned that no satisfactory opinion could be obtained regarding it.
17. Kalmia latifolia, L. (calico bush or ivy bush of North America).--The wood is hard and dense, and is much used in America for mechanical purposes. It has been recommended as a substitute for boxwood for engraving, and trials should, therefore, be made with it.
18. Monotoca elliptica, R. Br.--A tall shrub or tree 20 or 30 feet high, native of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. The wood has been experimented upon in this country, and though to all appearances it is an excellent wood, yet Mr. Worthington Smith reported upon it as having a bad surface, and readily breaking away so that the cuts require much retouching after engraving.
19. Diospyros texana.--A North American tree, of the wood of which Professor Sargent speaks favorably. "It is, however," he says, "in Texas, at least, rather small, scarcely six inches in diameter, and not very common. In northern Mexico it is said to grow much larger, and could probably be obtained with some trouble in sufficient quantities to become an article of commerce." Of this wood Mr. Scott says: "It is sufficiently good as regards the grain, but the specimen sent for trial was much too small for practical purposes." Mr. R.H. Keene, the engraver, says it "is nearly equal to the best box."