By Sir F. J. Bramwell.

I propose to devote the very limited time at my disposal to the consideration of some of the most important of those improvements which are obviously and immediately connected with civil engineering. I am aware of the danger there is of making a serious mistake, when one excludes any matter which at the moment appears to be of but a trivial character. For who knows how speedily some development may show that the judgment which had guided the selection was entirely erroneous, and that that which had been passed over was in truth the germ of a great improvement? Nevertheless, in the interests of time some risk must be run, and a selection must be made; I propose, therefore, to ask your attention while I consider certain of (following the full title of Division I.) "The apparatus, appliances, processes, and products invented or brought into use since 1862." In those matters which may be said to involve the principles of engineering construction, there must of necessity be but little progress to note.

Principles are generally very soon determined, and progress ensues, not by additions to the principles, but by improvement in the methods of giving to those principles a practical shape, or by combining in one structure principles of construction which had been hitherto used apart. Therefore, to avoid the necessity of having a pause, in referring to a work, by finding that one is overstepping the boundary of principle, and trenching within the domain of construction, I think it will be well to treat these two heads together.

If my record had gone back to just before 1851 (the date of the great exhibition), I might have described much progress in the principles of girder construction; for shortly prior to that date, the plain cast-iron beam, with the greater part of the metal in the web, and with but little in the top and bottom flange, was in common use; and even in the preparation of the building for that exhibition, it is recorded that one of the engineers connected therewith had great difficulty in understanding how it was that the form of open work girder, with double diagonals introduced therein (a form which was for years afterward known as the exhibition girder), was any stronger than a girder with open panels separated by uprights, and without any diagonals. But, long before 1862, the Warren and other truss-girders had come into use, and I am inclined to say that, so far as novelty in the principle of girder-construction is concerned, I must confine myself to that combination of principles which is represented by the suspended cantilever, of which the Forth Bridge, only now in course of construction, affords the most notable instance.

It is difficult to see how a rigid bridge, with 1,700 foot spans, and with the necessity for so much clear headway below, could have been constructed without the application of this principle.