This oil has a decided brown color and a persistent and disagreeable odor. It is rather more fluid than castor oil. Glass vessels containing it soon show a film of apparently resinous material, which forms whenever a portion of the oil flows from the lip or edge down the outside of the vessel, and is thus exposed to the air in a thin stream. This drying power is one of its most prominent characters. If a few drops be exposed in a flat dish, in the water oven, the oil dries rapidly, so that in two hours the gain in weight will be appreciable, and in four hours the whole will have become solid.
The Specific Gravity at 60° Fahr., 940.15. - This is an unusually high gravity for a fixed oil. The only two which exceed it are castor oil, which is 960, about, and croton oil, which is very similar to this, 942 to 943 (A. H. Allen). It is interesting to note that both these oils are yielded by plants of the natural order Euphorbiaceae, to which the plant yielding so-called wood oil belongs.
This oil is apparently unaffected by exposure to a temperature of -13.3° C. (8° F).
The action of sulphuric acid is remarkable. When a drop comes in contact with the oil, the latter apparently solidifies round the drop of acid, forming a black envelope which grows in size and gradually absorbs and acts upon so much of the surrounding oil as to assume the appearance of a large dried currant of somewhat irregular shape.
When a drop of the oil is added to nitric acid, it solidifies, and on heating very readily changes into an orange yellow solid, which appears to soften, though not to liquefy, at the temperature of boiling water. This substance is readily soluble in hot solution of potash or soda, producing a deep brown liquid, from which it is again deposited in flocks on acidifying. I have not yet found any solvent for it. The action of nitric acid with linseed oil is more similar to this than that with any other oil I have tried, but the nitro products of the two, if I may so call them, are quite different from one another. That from linseed oil produced as indicated remains liquid at ordinary temperatures, as does the oil upon its addition to the acid.
By the action of nitric acid in presence of mercury, a semi-solid mass is produced of a much deeper color than in the preceding cases. A portion of the oil remains in the liquid state, as is usually the case with drying oils.
By the method indicated, it was found that 100 grammes of oil required 0.39 grammes caustic potash to neutralize the acid occurring in a free state.
The oil saponifies readily on being heated with potash in presence of alcohol, and the amount required to convert it entirely into potash soap was 211 grammes of caustic potash per thousand grammes of oil. There are no saponification numbers for oils that can be considered close to this. I can find no record of any having been obtained between 197 and 221, so that the further examination on which I am now engaged may show this unusual number to be due to this oil containing some new fatty acid in combination.
The acids produced by adding acid to the potash soap formed in this case a cake on cooling, of a much deeper color than I have before obtained. After washing well they amounted to 94.10 per cent. of the oil. The amount dissolved by the water in washing was in this case also very small, the potash required for neutralizing equaling 1.02 per cent. of the weight of oil.
I found that the cakes of acids were solid at 36° C., and were completely melted at 39°.
On solution in alcohol, and digestion for two days with animal charcoal, the color was much diminished, and on the liquid being filtered and cooled to 0° C., an abundance of small white crystalline plates separated out, which, when dried, melted at 67° C.
The crude fatty acids turn black with sulphuric acid, as the oil does, and yield a similar substance with nitric acid. It is similar in appearance, but differs in that it melts at about 50° C., and is soluble in glacial acetic acid, which is not the case with the substance from the oil.
These fatty acids crystallize on cooling, in a most characteristic and beautiful way, forming wavy circular plates totally unlike any that I have seen before.
The above experiments may, I think, be taken as conclusive as to the nature of tea oil and cabbage oil. The former may certainly be considered a useful lubricating agent for the finer kinds of machinery. The work upon wood oil is not yet sufficiently complete to show us the nature of its proximate constituents. I am continuing the examination of this oil. Perhaps I need scarcely add that there is no connection between this "wood oil" and the Gurgun balsam, the product of Dipterocarpus turbinatus, which is also known as "wood oil."
 Read at an evening meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, Feb, 4, 1885.