Another mode of keeping out weather is to cement the face of the brickwork. But this hides up the work, and so tends to promote bad work, besides being often very unsightly.

Among other peculiarities of brickwork are the facilities for introducing different colors and different textures of surface which it presents, the ease with which openings and arches can be formed in it, the possibility of executing ornament and even carving, and the ease with which brickwork will combine with other building materials. It cannot be well made use of for columns, though it may readily enough be turned into piers or pilasters. It cannot, generally speaking, with advantage be made use of for any large domes, though the inner dome of St. Paul's and the intermediate cone are of brick, and stand well. But it is an excellent material for vaulting arcades and all purposes involving the turning of arches.

Brickwork must be said to be durable, but it requires care. If not of the best, brickwork within the reach of the constant vibration caused by the traffic on a railway seems to be in danger of being shaken to pieces, judging from one or two instances that have come under my own observation. The mortar, and even in some cases the bricks themselves, will rapidly deteriorate if moisture be allowed to get into the heart of a brick wall, and in exposed situations this is very apt to happen. Care should always be taken to keep the pointing of external brickwork in good order, and to maintain all copings and other projections intended to bar the access of water coming down from above, and to stop the overflowing of gutters and stack pipes, which soon soaks the wall through and through.

Of course, if there is a failure of foundations, brickwork, as was pointed out earlier, becomes affected at once. But if these be good, and the materials used be sound ones, and if the other precautions just recommended be taken, it will last strong and sturdy for an immense length of time. In some cases, as for example in the Roman ruins, it has stood for 1,500 years under every possible exposure and neglect, and still shows something of a sturdy existence after all, though sadly mutilated. If we now return to the question, What can be well done in brickwork? no better answer can be given than to point to what has been and is being done, especially in London and within our own reach and observation.

Great engineering works, such as railway viaducts, the lining of railway tunnels, the piers and even the arches of bridges, sewage works, dock and wharf walls, furnace chimneys, and other works of this sort are chiefly done in brickwork. And notwithstanding that iron is far more used by the engineer for some purposes and concrete for others now than formerly, still there is a great field for brickwork. The late Mr. Brunel, who was fond of pushing size to extremes, tried how wide a span he could arch over with brickwork. And I believe the bridge which carries the G.W.R. over the Thames at Maidenhead has the widest arch he or any other engineer has successfully erected in brick. This arch has, it is stated, a span of 128 ft. It is segmental, the radius being 169 ft., and the rise from springing to crown 24 ft., and the depth of the arch 5 ft. 3 in. Nowadays, of course, no one would dream of anything but an iron girder bridge in such a position. Mr. Brunel's father, when he constructed the Thames Tunnel, lined it with brickwork foot by foot as he went on, and that lining sustained the heavy weight of the bed of the river and the river itself.

If you leave London by either of the southern lines, all of which are at a high level, you go for miles on viaducts consisting of brick arches carried on brick walls. If you leave by the northern lines, you plunge into tunnel after tunnel lined with brickwork, and kept secure by such lining. Mile after mile of London streets, and those in the suburbs, present to the eye little but brick buildings; dwelling houses, shops, warehouses, succeed one another, all in brickwork, and even when the eye seems to catch a change, it is more apparent than real.

The white mansions of Tyburnia, Belgravia, South Kensington, and the neat villas of the suburbs are only brickwork, with a thin coat of stucco, which serves the purpose of concealing the real structure--often only too much in need of concealment--with a material supposed to be a little more sightly, and certainly capable of keeping the weather out rather more effectually than common brickwork would.

More than this, such fine structures, apparently built entirely of stone, as are being put up for commercial purposes in the streets of the city, and for public purposes throughout London, are all of them nothing more than brick fabrics with a facing of masonry. Examine one of them in progress, and you will find the foundations and vaults of brickwork, and not only the interior walls, but the main part of the front wall, executed in brickwork, and the stone only skin deep. There are, however, two or three ways of making use of brickwork without covering it up, and of gaining good architectural effects thereby, and to these I beg now to direct your attention.

The architect who desires to make an effective brick building, which shall honestly proclaim to all the world that it is of brick, may do this, and, if he will, may do it successfully, by employing brickwork and no other material, but making the best use of the opportunities which it affords, or he may erect his building of brickwork and stone combined, or of brickwork and terra cotta. Mr. Robson, till lately the architect to the School Board for London, has the merit of having put down in every part of the metropolis a series of well contrived and well designed buildings, the exterior of which almost without exception consists of brickwork only.

If you examine one of his school-houses, you will see that the walls are of ordinary stock brickwork, but usually brightened up by a little red brick at each angle, and surmounted by well contrasted gables and with lofty, well designed chimneys, rising from the tiled roof. The window openings and doorways are marked by brickwork, usually also red, and sometimes moulded, and though I personally must differ from the taste which selected some of the forms employed (they are those in use in this country in the 17th and the last centuries), I cordially recognize that with very simple and inexpensive means exceedingly good, appropriate, and effective buildings have been designed.