By J. Lehrke.

This arrangement consists in a cylindrical metal or horn mounted lens two to four centimeters long, and magnifying two or three times, and two or three centimeters in diameter, whose side is provided with a contrivance for holding after it has been pushed into place a copying needle, a protractor, etc.

While hitherto the architect in using millimeter paper must hold separately in his hands a magnifying glass and needle, while the engraver holds the engraving tool inclined in one hand and the magnifying glass in the other, or must work under a large lens standing on three feet, it is now possible by a firm connection between the lens and needle or other instrument to draw directly with one hand and under the lens. In the accompanying cut one of these lenses is shown in section, A, in which the glass is set obliquely, in whose focus the needle, a, is held and the field of view is enlarged. A longer description is unnecessary, as the illustration gives the best explanation. It need only be remarked that the stud, s, projecting a little near the glass, is for the purpose of preventing the instrument from leaving the position coinciding with the plane of the drawing. For architects and engineers is provided a small compass, b, of about 2 cm. diameter, for laying off parallel widths, for making smaller scales and the like. In these cases it is substituted for the needle. In like manner for calculating cross profiles by graphical methods, for reading parallel divisions, for estimating areas, or revising maps, a finely divided prismatic ivory rule, c, can be placed under the glass, B, and will do good service. In this case the plane of the lens must be perpendicular to the axis of the tube.


For draughtsmen a parallel drawing pen, something like b, is used, which gives several lines at once, perfectly parallel and close together; or a drawing pen with which the smallest signatures, such as boundary stones and figures, can be made neatly and exactly, which is secured like the needle, a, and for which the cylinder serves also as pen holder, offers a great advance.

Thus a whole series of instruments can be used with the lens. For instance, a naturalist can use with it a knife or other instrument. To avoid injury from the instruments, one should, in laying down the cylinder, place it on its side. It is also recommended that on the outer tube of the frame, which is appropriately lacquered of black color, white arrows should be placed in the direction of the points of the instrument, so that the eyes shall be protected from injury in handling the instrument, as by the points being stuck into the pupil, owing to lifting the instrument in an inverted position. - Zeitschrift fur Instrumentenkunde.