Next notice in the diagram that the top of the curve gradually inclines to go to the red end of the spectrum as you get the light transmitted through more and more air, and I should like to show you that this is the case in a laboratory experiment. Taking a slide with a wide and long slot in it, a portion is occupied by a right angled prism, one of the angles of 45° being toward the center of the slot. By sliding this prism in front of the spectrum I can deflect outward any portion of the spectrum I like, and by a mirror can reflect it through a second lens, forming a patch of light on the screen overlapping the patch of light formed by the undeflected rays. If the two patches be exactly equal, white light is formed. Now, by placing a rod as before in front of the patch, I have two colored stripes in a white field, and though the background remains of the same intensity of white, the intensities of the two stripes can be altered by moving the right angled prism through the spectrum. The two stripes are now apparently equally luminous, and I see the point of equality is where the edge of the right angled prism is in the green.

Placing a narrow cell filled with our turbid medium in front of the slit, I find that the equality is disturbed, and I have to allow more of the yellow to come into the patch formed by the blue end of the spectrum, and consequently less of it in the red end. I again establish equality. Placing a thicker cell in front, equality is again disturbed, and I have to have less yellow still in the red half, and more in the blue half. I now remove the cell, and the inequality of luminosity is still more glaring. This shows, then, that the rays of maximum luminosity must travel toward the red as the thickness of the turbid medium is increased.

The observations at 8,000 feet, here recorded, were taken on September 15, at noon, and of course in latitude 46° the sun could not be overhead, but had to traverse what would be almost exactly equivalent to the atmosphere at sea level. It is much nearer the calculated intensity for no atmosphere intervening than it is for one atmosphere. The explanation of this is easy. The air is denser at sea level than at 8,000 feet up, and the lower stratum is more likely to hold small water particles or dust in suspension than is the higher.



For, however small the particles may be, they will have a greater tendency to sink in a rare air than in a denser one, and less water vapor can be held per cubic foot. Looking, then, from my laboratory at South Kensington, we have to look through a proportionately larger quantity of suspended particles than we have at a high altitude when the air thicknesses are the same. And consequently the absorption is proportionately greater at sea level that at 8,000 feet high. This leads us to the fact that the real intensity of illumination of the different rays outside the atmosphere is greater than it is calculated from observations near sea level. Prof. Langley, in this theater, in a remarkable and interesting lecture, in which he described his journey up Mount Whitney to about 12,000 feet, told us that the sun was really blue outside our atmosphere, and at first blush the amount of extra blue which he deduced to be present in it would, he thought, make it so. But though he surmised the result from experiments made with rotating disks of colored paper, he did not, I think, try the method of using pure colors, and consequently, I believe, slightly exaggerated the blueness which would result.

I have taken Prof. Langley's calculations of the increase of intensity for the different rays, which I may say do not quite agree with mine, and I have prepared a mask which I can place in the spectrum, giving the different proportions of each ray as calculated by him, and this when placed in front of the spectrum will show you that the real color of sunlight outside the atmosphere, as calculated by Langley, can scarcely be called bluish. Alongside I place a patch of light which is very closely the color of sunlight on a July day at noon in England. This comparison will enable you to gauge the blueness, and you will see that it is not very blue, and, in fact, not bluer perceptibly than that we have at the Riffel, the color of the sunlight at which place I show in a similar way. I have also prepared some screens to show you the value of sunlight after passing through five and ten atmospheres. On an ordinary clear day you will see what a yellowness there is in the color. It seems that after a certain amount of blue is present in white light, the addition of more makes but little difference in the tint. But these last patches show that the light which passes through the atmosphere when it is feebly charged with particles does not induce the red of the sun as seen through a fog.

It only requires more suspended particles in any thickness to induce it.

In observations made at the Riffel, and at 14,000 feet, I have found that it is possible to see far into the ultra-violet, and to distinguish and measure lines in the sun's spectrum which can ordinarily only be seen by the aid of a fluorescent eye piece or by means of photography. Circumstantial evidence tends to show that the burning of the skin, which always takes place in these high altitudes in sunlight, is due to the great increase in the ultra-violet rays. It may be remarked that the same kind of burning is effected by the electric arc light, which is known to be very rich in these rays.

Again, to use a homely phrase, "You cannot eat your cake and have it." You cannot have a large quantity of blue rays present in your direct sunlight and have a luminous blue sky. The latter must always be light scattered from the former. Now, in the high Alps you have, on clear day, a deep blue-black sky, very different indeed from the blue sky of Italy or of England; and as it is the sky which is the chief agent in lighting up the shadows, not only in those regions do we have dark shadows on account of no intervening - what I will call - mist, but because the sky itself is so little luminous. In an artistic point of view this is important. The warmth of an English landscape in sunlight is due to the highest lights being yellowish, and to the shadows being bluish from the sky light illuminating them. In the high Alps the high lights are colder, being bluer, and the shadows are dark, and chiefly illuminated by reflected direct sunlight. Those who have traveled abroad will know what the effect is. A painting in the Alps, at any high elevation, is rarely pleasing, although it may be true to nature.

It looks cold, and somewhat harsh and blue.

In London we are often favored with easterly winds, and these, unpleasant in other ways, are also destructive of that portion of the sunlight which is the most chemically active on living organisms. The sunlight composition of a July day may, by the prevalence of an easterly wind, be reduced to that of a November day, as I have proved by actual measurement. In this case it is not the water particles which act as scatterers, but the carbon particles from the smoke.

Knowing, then, the cause of the change in the color of sunlight, we can make an artificial sunset, in which we have an imitation light passing through increasing thicknesses of air largely charged with water particles. [The image of a circular diaphragm placed in front of the electric light was thrown on the screen in imitation of the sun, and a cell containing hyposulphite of soda placed in the beam. Hydrochloric acid was then added; as the fine particles of sulphur were formed, the disk of light assumed a yellow tint, and as the decomposition of the hyposulphite progressed, it assumed an orange and finally a deep red tint.] With this experiment I terminate my lecture, hoping that in some degree I have answered the question I propounded at the outset - why the sun is red when seen through a fog.

[1]Lecture delivered by Capt. W. De W. Abney, R.E., P.B.S., at the Royal Institution, on February 25, 1887. - Nature.