It is well known that the principle which is applied to the construction of vacuum or filter pumps, and which aims at the production of rarefied air in a certain inclosed space, may also be applied to the production of air pressure.

A simple apparatus by which this may be accomplished has recently been constructed by A. Beutell.

A tall cylindrical flask, K (see cut), is provided with an outlet tube near the bottom, and its stopper carries two tubes, one (M) for the entrance of a jet of water, and the other (L) for the exit of the compressed air, which may be conducted to a blast lamp or wherever air under pressure may be needed. The column of water entering through M causes air to be sucked in through the little hole at c, and this air, after arriving in the flask, is gradually compressed by the continuously entering water.

In order that the apparatus may work properly, it is necessary to construct the tube, M, in a particular manner, and of certain definite proportions. Fig. 3 exhibits its bore and shape in an enlarged view. A short distance below the orifice of the tube it is slightly expanded, and then gradually contracts to the place, b. It then again expands to an oblong cavity, and contracts again to a neck, e, which is a trifle wider than that at b, and which must be so situated that the column of water passing through b is exactly perpendicular to the center of the aperture at e. The tube then expands again to its original diameter, and is slightly curved, which is done to prevent any of the compressed air in the cylinder, K, from regurgitating upward.

The outlet tube at A is preferably constructed as shown in Fig. 2. Instead of being made of one piece, it is there represented as consisting of two pieces joined together by rubber tubing, a sort of check valve, G, being introduced into the rubber joint. By regulating the check valve, that is by approaching it more or less to the exit of the tube, A, the outflow of water may be regulated. It is important to adjust this so that the cylindrical flask will always be at least half full, and never over three-fourths filled. While the column of water falls through the aperture at b, into the expanded portion of M, it aspirates air through the little orifice, c, communicating with the outer air, and this air is carried along with it into the flask, where it accumulates until it is under a pressure equal to that of the column of water entering the apparatus, when the latter will cease to flow. By allowing the air to escape through L, more will be successively compressed, so that a steady blast may be obtained.

BEUTELL'S WATER BLAST PUMP.
BEUTELL'S WATER BLAST PUMP.

The proportions between the diameters of the expanded and contracted portions of the glass tube, M, are important. If the bore at b amounts to 2.5 millimeters, that at e should be 3 millimeters. Under these circumstances, and with a pressure of water equal to a column of 61.7 cubic centimeters, the apparatus will furnish 890 liters of air for every 1,000 liters of water consumed. If the two diameters were: b, 1 millimeter, and e, 2.4 mm., one liter of water aspirates 2.35 liters of air. These proportions are, no doubt, capable of improvement. - Chem. Zeit. and Ch. Centralbl.