The method of presentment of an item for payment is determined by its cost and by legal requirements. The costs include the clerical work, messenger service, loss of interest on idle funds, risks of carrying the items or moneys in the street or in the mails, and so forth. Items on institutions in the holder's city are collected either by messenger or through the clearing house. A clearing house is now established in every city of considerable size and the items collected by messenger include merely those on institutions not members of the clearing house, documentary items, special advice items, and large sight items. At the bank the city collection clerk dispatches messengers over prescribed routes with these collection items.