Two methods of protection are provided in the United States. Both the federal and state laws require minimum percentage reserves to be held against deposits. Since the state and national banks are competitors, the state reserve requirements do not exceed, and are usually equal to or less than, the federal requirements, but the plans are similar. The minimum percentage reserve requirements under the National Bank Act and under the Federal Reserve Act, with amendments, along with the good and bad features of the system, are treated in Volume II, Chapters XXI and XXII.

Another method is in use in the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Texas, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Washington, where provision is made for the compulsory or voluntary insurance, or "guaranty," of deposits.