The government enjoyed many advantages from the bank, such as the $2,000,000 loan for its stock subscription, which bore only 6 per cent interest, whereas the dividend rate on the stock was 8 per cent, the 2 per cent difference representing a net profit to the government. The Treasury also borrowed on short-term notes from the bank. When by 1795 long-term loans to the government amounted to $6,200,000, or nearly two-thirds of its entire capital, this concentration of loans crippled its services to commerce and industry and also made it difficult for the institution to help the government with short-term accommodation. To liquidate its debt to the bank the government, between 1797 and 1802, sold its shares of the bank's stock - at premiums aggregating $671,860. Meanwhile the government had received dividends amounting to $1,101,720.

The relations between the Treasury and the bank were intimate. The bank granted loans to the Treasury, helped it to perform its foreign exchange business - for the bank did most of the foreign and domestic exchange business of the country - acted as government depository, paying no interest on the public deposits, and in compensation for the use of the deposits transmitted public moneys from place to place free of charge. In addition the bank was of service to importers in the payment of custom duties, which were commonly paid in post-notes. After 1800 the Collector of the Internal Revenue used the bank as well as its branches to collect the maturing revenue bonds, promoting thereby greater punctuality and economy in the service.