Although I have endeavoured to separate currency and banking as much as possible and to deal with each subject on its own merits, it is not humanly possible to dissociate one from the other. The channel through which currency flows is trade, which includes practically every transaction between human beings in any part of the world. Banking and credit are indispensable elements of trade in any part of the world, however elementary they may be. It would be mere waste of space to go into the history of the development and progress of banks and banking; I have already given a brief history of banking as known in China from the earliest times up to date. The position to-day is, that, however rudimentary banking may be in this country, sales and purchases have to be financed by the banks. Although there may be no credit in the real sense of the word in this country; there is still means by which immediate payments for purchases or money in silver for sales are not altogether necessary for the carrying on of business. I have also shown how the system of granting drafts and bills of exchange has developed, so much so that the comparatively large volume of trade is being carried on with as little use of money as possible. I want to guard my readers against any inference that the system of internal trade in China by means of native orders and drafts, is any where near as economical in the use of money as the system of trade carried on with the aid of the banks in the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, the rudiments of a machinery for minimising the use of money has been existent in this country for at least a century. How to develop or modify the existing system in order that the best results may be attained is certainly an important question.