It needs no special arguments to prove that such proposals were bound to fail. As in every other country in the world, where currency has been properly regulated - at least as far as present conditions go - the course adopted should be one in consonance with local tradition. In every country in Europe, the standard coin or coins were already in existence and the task that confronted the reformer was only that of regulating the value. In India, for instance, the rupee existed long before the advent of the British, and its subdivisions were also rigidly fixed. Java, the Straits Settlements or even the Philippines are not parallel examples, for the simple reason that these countries are comparatively modern and practically brought into the variest pale of civilization by the Europeans. In these countries, some regulation or other had to be adopted with regard to money, and the plan of the home countries with slight modification to suit local conditions, was easily foisted on them. There was no breaking with local traditions, as there were none to break. In Japan local coinage has been maintained with some changes necessitated by increase of foreign trade, and the yen has always been the money of Japan.