The growth of foreign commerce and increase of China's international obligations changed the whole aspect of affairs with regard to reform and emphasised the urgency of currency reform. The nations having trade and political relations with this country found it necessary to protest against the most unsatisfactory state of affairs - although it was needless to state that the gain in the end, as a result of steps taken in the direction of this reform, was certain to be more favourable to China than to other nations. But there was no doubt that the chaotic condition of money was responsible for keeping down the total of the volume of foreign trade. As the nation having the bulk of the foreign trade with China, Great Britain pointed out this fact in a friendly manner at first. Owing partly to the general distrust of all proposals emanating from foreign nations, as also because the Central Government was never able to exercise its rights, friendly representations on the part of Great Britain, as also other nations, led to no practical result. Great Britain as well as America thought it best to bind China to making some effort to bringing about harmony in currency. The Mackay treaty or what is generally known as the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between China and Great Britain, signed on September 5, 1902, provided that "China agrees to take the necessary steps to provide a uniform national coinage which shall be legal tender in payment of all duties, taxes and other obligations throughout the Empire by British as well as Chinese subjects." The Treaty of Commerce between the United States and China signed in the following month also contained a provision to that effect.