"Notice to one of several partners is notice to all: and when a bill has been drawn by a firm upon one of the partners, and by him accepted and dishonoured, it is unnecessary to give notice of such dishonour to the firm; for this must necessarily be known to one of them, and the knowledge of one is the knowledge of all.

"Upon an acceptance payable at a banker's, notice of non-payment need not be given to the accepter, for he makes the bankers his agents; presentment to them is presentment to him.

"A person who has been once discharged by laches from his liability on a bill or note, is always discharged. And, therefore, where two or more parties to a bill or note have been so discharged, but one of them, not knowing of the laches, pays it, he pays it in his own wrong, and cannot recover the money from another of such parties."

As many bills drawn in foreign languages pass through the hands of a London banker, it may be useful to give a list of some of those words which express the amount and the time, the two main points in a bill of exchange: -

English. .

One

Two

Three

Sixty

Ninety.

German

Ein

Zwei

Drei

Sechzig

Neunzig.

Dutch . .

Een

Twee

Drie

Zestig

Negentig.

French . .

Un

Deux

Trois

Soixante

Quatre-vingt-dix, or Nonante.

Italian . .

Uno

Due

Tre

Sessanta

Nonanta, or Novanta.

Spanish

Uno

Dos

Tres

Sesenta

Noventa.

Portuguese.

Hum

Dous

Tres

Secenta

Noventa.

Swedish....

En

Twa

Tre

Sexti

Nitti.

Danish . .

Een

To

Tre

Tredsindstyve

Halvfemtesindstyve

English .

Two Months after date.

German ...

Zwei Monate nach dato.

Dutch....

Twee Maanden na dato.

French...

A deux mois de date.

Italian...

A due mesi dopo data.

Spanish...

A dos meses de la fecha.

A dos meses data.

Portuguese..

A dous Inezes de data.

Swedish....

Twa Manander ifran dato.

Danish.....

To maaneder efter dato.

English......

Three days after sight.

German....

Drei tage nach sicht.

Dutch....

Drie dagen na zigt.

French..............

A trois jours de vue.

Italian..............

A tre giorni vista.

A tre giorni dopo vista.

Spanish............

A tres dias vista.

Portuguese..........

A tres dias vista.

Swedish .........

Tre dagar efter sigt.

Danish ..................

Tre dage efter sigt.1

In all the above languages, "at sight" is usually expressed by a vista, except the French, which expresses it by a vue. "At usance" is expressed by a uso or ad uso. The names of the months so nearly resemble the English, that a mistake can but rarely occur.

The following are forms of bills in each of the above-mentioned languages: -

French.

Lille, le 28 Septembre, 18 . Bon pour 158 9 Sterlings.

Au vingt-cinq D6cembre prochain, payez par ce mandat a I'ordre de nous-memes la somme de cent cinquante-huit livres sterlings 9 schellings valeur en nous-memes et que passerez suivant Vavis de

A Messrs______________________ a Londres.

German.

Nwrnberg, den 28 October, 18 . Pro 100 Sterling.

Zwei Monate nach dato zahlen Siegegen diesen Prima Wechsel an die

Ordre des Herrn_______________Ein Hundert Pfund Sterling den

Werth erhalten. She bringen solche auf Rechnung laut Bericht von der

Herren_____________________

London.

1 These phrases are taken from a small pamphlet, called "The Interpreter," compiled and translated by a Member of the Society of Public Notaries in London.

Dutch.

Grouw, den 1st November, 18 . Voor 59 17 6

Twee maanden na dato gelieve UEd te betalen voor dezen onzen prima Wisselbrief de secunda niet betaald zynde aan de ordre van de

Heeren______________ncgen & vyftig Ponden zeventien schelling in zespences sterling, de waarde in rekening UEd stelle het of rekening met of zonder advys van.

de Heer-------------------------------te London.

Italian. Livorno, le 25 Settembre, 18 . Per 500 Sterlins.

A Tre mesi data pagate per questa prima de Cambio (una sol volta) all' ordine------------------------------, la somma di Lire cinque cento sterline valuta cambiata, eponete in conto M. 8. secondo Vawiso Addic

Al_____________________

Londra.

Spanish. Malaga, a 20 de Setbre de 18 . Son 300.

A noventa dias fecha se serviran Vs mandar pagar por esta primera de cambio d la orden de loss Sres _____Tres cientas libras

Esterlinas en oro o plata valor rectbido de dhos Sres que anotaran valor en cuenta segun aviso de

A los Sres Londres.

Portuguese. 600 Esterlinas. Lisbon, aos 8 de Dezembro de 18 .

A Sessenta dias de vista precizos pagard V _____________por esta nossa unica via de Letra Segura, a nos ou a nossa Ordem a quaniia acima de Seis Centos Livras Esterlinas valor de nos recebido em Fa-sendas, que passera em Comta segundo o aviso de

Ao Sen'_________________

Lonares.

Swedish.

Bjorneberg, den 23 September, 18 . For Sterl. 100.

Nittio Dagar efter dato behagade H. H. emot denna prima Wexel

(secundo obetald) betala till Herr-----------------------elle ordres Etthundra Pund Sterling som stalles i rakning enligt avis.

Herrar-------------------------------

London.

Danish.

Kjubenhavn, 9 December, 18 . Rbae 4,000.

Tre maaneder efter dato behager de at betale denne Prima Vexel, secunda ikke, til Herr----------------------eller ordre med Fire Tusinde

Rigsbank Baler, Vdlutta modtaget og stilles i Regning ifslge advis.

Herrer____________________

London.