Every new branch at which notes shall be issued must take out a separate licence. Hitherto no bank had been obliged to take out more than four licences, however numerous its branches. This tends to check the opening of new branches of issue.

It has been stated that the object of this Act was to pave the way for the establishment of one bank of issue. These provisions are certainly not ill-adapted for such an end. They will reduce the amount of the country circulation; they will produce other ill effects; the formation of large banks will be retarded. In some places it would be for the public advantage that a private bank should become a joint-stock bank. In other districts it might be desirable that two small joint-stock banks of issue should unite and form a large one. The restrictions imposed by this Act will tend to prevent such unions. Perhaps, in other respects, its effects may be beneficial; it may lead a larger number of persons to keep current accounts with bankers, and to make their payments with cheques. A smaller amount of notes will then be necessary for the purposes of the country. The advantages of having a banker will be extended to the middle and lower classes, and will not as much as heretofore be confined to the wealthy. The Act, too, may have the effect of exempting the banks of issue from those accusations to which they have always been subjected on the occurrence of any national calamity. The whole Act of 1844 is formed upon the notion that the country bankers can extend their issues as much as they please-an error that has over and over again been abundantly refuted. Yet had the bill not been passed, and had the country circulation increased a million or two, as possibly it might from the increased transactions of the country, the railway speculations of 1845 and 1846 would doubtless have been ascribed to the excessive issues of the country banks. The following language, which I addressed in 1844 to the joint-stock banks, may not be considered inapplicable to all banks of issue :-

"Another advantage is, that the joint-stock banks of issue will be delivered from those unjust accusations to which they have hitherto been exposed. Almost every evil that has befallen the country for the last ten years has been ascribed by different writers to the reckless issues of the joint-stock banks; and though the charge has been oft refuted, yet such has been the talent, zeal, and perseverance with which it has been revived, that it has doubtless in some degree prejudiced the public mind. But now this charge can be made no more. Our assailants are compelled to observe at least a ten years' truce. During this period we shall have no bank directors publishing pamphlets to show that their efforts to regulate the exchanges have been counteracted by the imprudent issues of the joint-stock banks. Our notes will not again be classed by the authors of 'prize essays' among the causes of national distress, and philosophical writers will no longer declaim, in eloquent metaphor, against 'the wild democracy of rival issuers.' It is no small matter to be put into a position wherein we shall be sheltered from the peltings of unjust accusations."

The other sections of the Act having special reference to country bankers are 23 to 25 inclusive, which provide for compensation to certain bankers named in Schedule C, for having ceased to issue their own notes under certain agreements with the Bank of England; for the Bank of England being allowed to compound with issuing banks in addition to those named in Schedule C; and that such compositions shall cease on the 1st August. 1856.

The Laics of the Currency with reference to the Country

Banks.

These are thus stated in the article previously quoted in the "Foreign and Colonial Review" of April, 1844 :-

"It will readily occur to every reader, that the laws which regulate the circulation of these country banks must be different from those which regulate the London circulation of the Bank of England. They do not pay the public dividends; they cannot issue their notes in purchasing bullion, or Government stock, or Exchequer bills, as all these operations take place in London, where their notes do not circulate. They are also subject to certain restrictive laws to which the notes of the Bank of England are not subject. Their notes are not only legally payable on demand, but payment is constantly demanded; while no one demands payment of a Bank of England note, unless he has occasion to export the gold. There is also a system of exchanges between country bankers, by which all notes that are paid into any of the banks are immediately brought back for payment to the banks that issue them. It is the practice, too, throughout the country, to allow interest on deposits; and thus all notes not required for the actual wants of the community are promptly withdrawn from circulation, and lodged with a bank upon interest.

"On inspecting the monthly returns of the country circulation for the last ten years, we find that the highest amount is in the month of April; thence it descends, and arrives at the lowest point by the end of August, which is the lowest point in the year. It gradually increases to November; a slight reaction takes place in December; but it then advances, until it reaches the highest point in April. The general law is, that the country circulation always makes one circuit in the year-being at its lowest point in August, and advancing to December, and continuing to advance to its highest point to the month of April, and then again descending to its lowest point in August.

"The laws which regulate the circulation of the country banks are derived from the state of trade in the respective districts in which the banks are established. As these banks are chiefly located in agricultural districts, the operations of agriculture have a very considerable influence in their regulation. Hence the advance in the spring, and the advance again after August, in consequence of the harvest. It is clear that the laws must be uniform in their operation, because the fluctuations of circulation in each year are uniform, and constantly recur with the return of the season. The slight reaction in December is probably occasioned by the collection of the public revenues and of landlords' rents in the country districts, and the general dulness of trade in that month.