1. Define "distribution."

2. Why are profits and taxes shares in distribution? "

3. What is the intimate relation between free land and distribution ?

4. What shares in distribution went to the pioneer farmer ?

5. Why is it said that free land receded westward ?

6. Just how did the laborer lose control of his tools ?

7. What during the past century has caused the lines separating the shares in distribution to become more distinct?

8. Why is there such a great inequality in wealth ?

9. Suggest some method for removing this inequality.

10. What is the relation between income and industrial 'efficiency ?

11. Name and evaluate the causes of inefficiency.

12. Why is society interested in the efficiency of the individual?

13. Just how does taxation tend to equalize wealth and income?


1. List the names of the heads of families in your block.

a. Estimate the income of each family.

b. Are there any noticeable variations among these incomes?

c. Which families belong to the higher income groups ? the lower income groups?

d. How does the average family income compare with the average family income of your community?

e. How does your own family income compare with the average family income of your block?

2. Estimate roughly the incomes of the families represented in your class. With this estimate as a basis, what are your conclusions as to the diffusion of education among the masses?

3. Interview persons in different income groups.

a. Do you find any spirit of class antagonism ? Analyze.

b. What reasons do you find advanced to explain inequalities ?

c. Inquire about solutions of the problem.

d. Formulate your own conclusions in the matter.

4. From observation and inquiry determine as accurately as possible how business men regard the following: a. Drinking of intoxicating liquors.

b. Irregular hours.

c. Habits that destroy mental or physical strength.

d. Expensive tastes.

e. Idleness and loafing.

5. Suppose you were asked to devise a scheme for equalizing incomes through taxation.

a. What public enterprises would you create or enlarge ?

b. How would you regard the extension of public education?

c. Would you favor supplying free bread or free meat? Why, or why not ? i. How does c differ from b? ii. Which would meet the greater opposition?

d. Would you exempt all except the very rich from paying taxes ?



1. "Poverty is an individual matter. No man need be poor in a country like the United States, where industry constantly cries for laborers." Comment on the above statement.

2. Many well-to-do men argue that it is little or no concern of theirs if individuals refuse to be temperate and thrifty.

a. Is this a correct attitude?

b. Under what circumstances is society to blame for intemperance?

c. Would the well-to-do be profited financially by an increase in temperance or thrift ? Explain.

d. Should "the strong bear the burdens of the weak" ?

3. What is the relation of each of the following to attempts to distribute wealth and income more equally through taxation: a. Free public education?

b. City parks?

c. City milk inspection ?

d. Public highways?

e. Pure-food laws ?

f. Free band concerts ?

g. Public recreation grounds ?

Supplementary Reading

Bullock, Introduction to the Study of Economics, 3d ed., pages 411-423-

Ely, Outlines of Economics, 3d ed., pages 384 - 406.

Fetter, Economics, Vol. II, pages 470-490.

Fisher, Elementary Principles of Economics, pages 476-486.

Seager, Principles of Economics, pages 170-197