General Characterization. Between uncivilized man, who uses what he finds, and civilized man, who makes what he wants, there is a middle ground. The man of this middle period neither depends alone on what he can find, nor makes things to any great extent, as we commonly think of making things; but rather raises things ; in other words he has learned to a limited extent to give direction to the forces of nature. He has learned to produce, but he still lives chiefly on the raw materials he has coaxed from nature, not knowing how to make them up. He is learning to labor and to save. To be sure, he very early learns the art of making a few simple tools like bows and arrows and primitive stone implements; but with these few exceptions, it is worthy of note, that as man learns to subdue nature he begins not with dead nature, not with inanimate things, but with living or animate nature; he uses, not metals, but animals and plants, and learns to increase their amount by artifice. Moreover, of these two classes of living things, he first subdues the higher form of life, that which more nearly resembles his own, and, as a general rule, not until long afterward does he learn to exercise any considerable control over plant life for his uses.

Changes that mark the Stage. When hunting tribes cease to depend for food solely upon the killing or capture of animals, and turn to the art of taming and breeding them, such tribes are entering upon the second great era of economic progress, which we have called the pastoral stage. Even in the hunting stage there lay the beginnings of such progress, in the taming of dogs and horses for hunting; but when extensive pasturing of animals for food and clothing takes place, the pastoral stage has well begun. Marked features of the earlier stage still continue, however. Thus, while man now lives chiefly upon his flocks, he still leaves the flocks to live upon what they can find. So, while man no longer needs to wander in search of his own food, he must nevertheless do so for the food of his flocks. Cities are therefore still impossible. Moreover, though the land will now support many more inhabitants than before, much land is still needed for the necessary pasture, and tribes and families roaming broadly to search for desirable situations frequently come into sharp collision. According to the calculations of the celebrated geographer, Professor Ratzel, nomadic populations require, on an average, about a square mile for every two to five persons. Wars, therefore, continue, keeping down population, but with one important change: the victims of war for a long time continue to be generally slaughtered, the women and children being more frequently spared than the men; but men who have flocks to furnish them food in time cease to eat human flesh. Captives later come to be recognized as of use in serving their captors, and thus slavery succeeds cannibalism and slaughter. Slavery could not have become extensive in the earlier stage, because slaves without weapons would have been of little use when women did nearly all the drudgery, and, on the other hand, slaves with weapons would have been a constant menace to their masters.

Migrations. Wanderings of whole peoples were very common, due in some cases to the exhaustion of old feeding-grounds, and in other cases to the natural increase in numbers when a tribe had been long established in one place. It was such overpopulation that brought about the warlike incursions of barbarian hosts into Europe from the heart of Asia, and the wanderings of the nations in the early centuries of the Christian era.

Little Land Ownership. It follows from what we have already said that there was little ownership of land in the sense in which we now regard ownership. Tribes as a whole would lay claim to certain districts for a time, and would try to keep other tribes from pasturing there. But individuals of the tribe would own no land, or at most very little. The notion of land ownership develops only when the land itself becomes more useful, and when the fruits of its fertility can be more directly appropriated than could happen when land was used for pasturing.

Private Property. Yet private property in other things than land had now become not uncommon. Even great accumulations of wealth took place, consisting of flocks, gold, silver, finely woven fabrics, and precious stones, in short, such things as very early appeal to the barbarian taste for showy ornament, and which may be transported from place to place with relative ease. We also find, even at this early time, great differences in the wealth of individuals, the rich and the poor being sharply contrasted with each other.

Little Commerce. In spite of the growth of wealth among men, there was little exchange or commerce. The reason for this is not far to seek. In order to have commerce, not only must there be wealth, but the wealth must be diversified. There is little to be gained by exchanging ox for ox. Of course in the other classes of goods to which we have referred there was some little traffic, but trade in the modern sense of the word can hardly be said to have existed. The economy of each large family or household was in the main sufficient unto itself.

The Origin of Exchange. Such trade as did exist was carried on by barter, or by the still earlier form of exchanging gifts. It is an interesting fact that barter, the earliest form of regular exchange, grew originally out of the practice of making presents. Among many primitive peoples to-day, barter is not recognized as an institution, but when one person presents a gift to another, he waits expectantly for a gift in return, and when he receives it, scans it closely to make sure that he has received an equivalent for his generosity.