Some conclusions from the study of statistical data will show that the increase in public expenditures has indeed been general - that the increase has not been confined to autocracy or democracy, or to Federal, commonwealth, or city units. In the European states expenditures increased about 360 per cent for the sixty-year period following 1830, while the per capita increase for the same time was about 400 per cent. In the same period the expenditures of France increased more than 225 per cent, while England's expenditures were nearly 110 per cent greater in 1902 than in 1866. In twenty-seven years after 1874 German expenditures had increased something like 225 per cent, while Russian expenditures showed an increase of 125 per cent for the twenty-year period after 1800.

Expenditures of smaller European states show the same upward trend, as is illustrated by Belgium and Switzerland. The increase in Belgium for less than a fifty-year period after 1850 was about 380 per cent, while in the Swiss Federation, for the same period, the increase was nearly 1,600 per cent.1

The increase in some of the countries can be attributed partially to wars, yet the countries which have been less engaged in war have shown the most rapid increase in expenditure. The conditions in Belgium and Switzerland are examples of this situation. The expenditures of the political subdivisions of European states have increased, sometimes even more rapidly than those for the states. Expenditures for the last few years show, of course, an enormous increase, but they are so influenced by the Great War as to give no comparison with normal increases.