It will be interesting to note some activities which fall under each of the above classes, and then consider the more important ones somewhat in detail. A large number fall under expenditure for the common benefit. Among those that at once present themselves to the mind of the reader are the use of funds for protection, for the general government, for education, for highways, for maintenance of standards of coinage, for weights and measures, for diplomatic and consular service, for maintenance of public buildings, and for the numerous aids to developing commerce and industry. The most important of expenditures for individuals, yet treated as common, are those for defectives and dependents. Bounties and pensions could also be placed in this class.
Most of the numerous services for which fees are charged fall under the group of expenditures which confer some special benefit along with the common benefit. The administration of the courts, maintaining patent and copyright systems, and chartering corporations are examples. Paving streets, laying sidewalks, and building sewers are usually treated in a similar manner. The class of expenditures for individual benefits is composed of the industries carried on by the state on a commercial basis, and of the monopolies maintained primarily for fiscal purposes. The importance of these items varies in different countries, and from time to time in the same country.