By the latter part of the sixteenth century political organizations had so changed that more attention to fiscal problems became imperative. The disintegration of the feudal regime caused concern to the public officials because a remodeling of fiscal policies became necessary. Jean Bodin, a Frenchman, first sensed the need for a systematic study of these changing political and fiscal conditions. His treatise, Les six Livres de la République, was published in 1576, and exerted a marked influence upon future fiscal and political writings. He considered the nerves of the state to be found in the proper management of its expenditures and revenues, and contended that revenues must be raised honestly, that they must be used for the profit and honor of the state, and that a part should be saved for a time of need.

After the works of Bodin, a decided lull appeared in the interest which was given to the study of expenditures and revenues of the country. It was not until the eighteenth century, when the abuses of the government in handling the public treasury became boldly open and flagrant, that any expressed interest in the study of fiscal problems again appeared. The revival of investigations of this nature was begun by Vauban, who published his Project for a Royal Tythe in 1707. His plan centered around an income tax which was to be supplemented by a number of indirect taxes. A work which had considerable influence upon future fiscal development was the E`sprit des lois, which was published by Montesquieu in 1748. Besides condemning the institution of public credit, he discoursed at length upon the influence which different forms of government exert upon fiscal systems.

One of the distinct contributions of the French to fiscal and economic thought came through the physiocrats, of which Quesnay and Turgot were leaders. Quesnay published the famous Tableau ceconomique in 1758. He did much to develop a consistent theory of production and distribution, and correlated his system for securing revenues to the theory which he developed. The theory which was proposed for land taxes will be noticed in a subsequent chapter.1 A number of modern French students, of whom the best known is Leroy-Beaulieu, have turned their attention to fiscal problems. Leroy-Beau-lieu's works are considered among the best in the field of Public Finance, and his Traité de la Science des Finances is especially worthy of study by all who are interested in fiscal problems.

1 See the chapter, "The Single Tax."

German Writers. - German writers were but little behind those in France in taking up a study of the problems connected with expenditures and revenues. At first the influence of French writers can be clearly discerned, but it was not long before the investigations of the German scholars divorced themselves from foreign influences. Many writers have appeared in the field, of whom the first of importance was Von Justi. His Staatswirthschaft was published in 1755. He treated public expenditures in detail, considered that incomes from public domains should be the base for a sound fiscal system, yet treated the economic and political effects of the various kinds of taxes. The large number of treatises which the German fiscal students have given disclose not only an uninterrupted, but a systematic development of fiscal investigations. An important work of the early nineteenth century (1832), which treats different phases of fiscal problems, was the Grundsätze der Finanzwissenschaft, by K. H. Rau. More modern works of a general nature have been by G. Cohn {Finanzwissenschaft, 1889), and by A. Wagner {Finanzwissenschaft, 1883-1899).