The following is a glossary of the most common mining terms in use:

Adit

A level driven into a mine from the side of a hill.

Alloy

A mixture of two or more metals, or a baser metal fused with a finer one.

Alluvium

An accumulation of sand or gravel deposited by streams or rivers."

Amalgam

An alloy of mercury with some other metals.

Analysis

The separation of compound substances into their elementary constituents.

Anhydrous

A substance having no water in its composition.

Anthracite

Steam or smokeless coal.

Anticlinal

An arch-shaped form of strata.

Apex

The edge of a vein which by its inclination is nearest the surface.

Arch

A portion of a lode that is left standing in a mine to support the hanging wall.

Arenaceous

Containing sand.

Argentiferous

Containing silver.

Argillaceous

Containing clay.

Arrastre

A primitive Mexican crushing-mill.

Assay

A chemical test to show the quantity of pure metal in ores or minerals.

Auriferous

Gold-bearing.

Backs

Mineral that is taken from the back of a lode.

Back Of The Lode

That part of the lode nearest the surface, or winch is between a level and the one working above.

Banket

A. conglomerate carrying gold.

Base Metal

The metal not classed as 'noble,' or precious.

Basset

The outcrop of a lode.

Bastard

Barren.

Battery

A set of stamps, usually five.

Battery Amalgamation

Amalgamation by putting mercury into the mortar.

Bed

A seam of ore running horizontally or parallel with the enclosing formation.

Bedrock

The hard, solid rock underlying auriferous gravel.

Bewaarplaatsen

Plains which companies took up on which to erect machinery, dump tailings, etc., and now proved to be valuable as deep levels.

Bezitrecht

The mining rights of the bewaarplaatsen.

Black Tin

Tin ore ready for smelting.

Blende

An ore consisting of zinc and sulphur.

Blind Lode

A lode showing no surface outcroppings, and that cannot be traced by surface indications.

Blue

The blue ground in which diamonds are usually found.

Bonanza

A term used to signify a large deposit of rich ore.

Boulders

Bocks which have been carried down the river-beds by the force of the water.

Branch

A small vein shooting from the main lode.

Breccia

Angular fragments of rock cemented together by mineral substances.

Bullion

Gold and silver in bulk, uncoined and unmanufactured.

Bumpmg-Tables

An appliance used for treating tailings.

Bunch Of Ore

A patch or pocket of ore in a lode.

Calciner

A kiln in which mineral is roasted.

Cap

A mine where the vein matter is barren or where the vein is pinched.

Carbonates

A union of carbonic acid and a base substance.

Carboniferous

Containing carbon; the formation in which coal-measures are found.

Cassiterite

An oxide of tin.

Caving

The falling in of the sides of a shaft or excavation.

Champion Lode

The main lode of a district.

Chimney

A shoot of ore in a vein.

Chlorides

Containing chloride of silver.

Chlorodize

To convert into chloride, preparatory to amalgamation.

Chute

A rich patch of ore in a vein. Also spelt 'shoot' or 'shute.'

Clean Up

The collection of the valuable product from the stamp-mill or copper plates.

Concentrates

The richest portion of ore obtained by concentration.

Concentration

The process by which the richest portion of the ore is concentrated, and the less valuable portion removed.

Conglomerate

Fragments of rocks cemented together by mineral substances.

Contact Vein

A vein lying between dissimilar formations.

Copper Plates

The plates in a stamp-mill over which the ore slowly flows as it leaves the mortars. They are coated with mercury, to which the gold particles adhere.

Costeanimg

Searching for ore by shallow pits, or making open cuts from the surface.

Counter-Lode

A smaller vein running across the main lode.

Country Rock

The barren rock near to an ore deposit.

Course

The direction taken by a vein.

Creep

A slow, alarming movement of the ground in the workings of a mine.

Cretaceous

Having the qualities of chalk.

Crevice

A cleft in the earth's crust containing a mineral vein.

Croppings

Fragments of a reef which show on the surface.

Cross-Course

Lodes crossing the main lodes at an angle.

Cross-Cut

A level driven through a lode at right angles, or across the course of a vein to intersect it.

Crusher

A machine for breaking quartz.

Cupriferous

Bearing copper.

Cut

To intersect a lode.

Dead Ground

A barren part of a lode.

Dead Work

Work in a mine that is necessary, but unproductive, such as sinking shafts and driving levels.

Decomposed

Resolved into its elementary particles.

Denudation

Rock laid bare by the action of water.

Deposit

A mass of rich gravel or ore.

Development

Work done to open up a mine.

Diluvium

Drift deposit.

Diorite

An intrusive rock, often called greenstone.

Dip

The inclination of a reef.

Dirt

Auriferous gravel or wash.

Dislocation

A displacement of a vein by a disturbance of the strata.

Disseminated

Dispersed or scattered in small particles through the rock.

Dressing

Sorting and preparing ore for reduction.

Drive

A level or tunnel in a mine.

Dump

A pile of ore taken from the mine and deposited on the surface.

Dyke

Intrudingjigneous rock.

End

The extremity of a drive or level.

Exploit

To work or develop a mine or property.

Eye Of A Shaft

The top of a shaft.

Face

The furthermost end of a level, drift, tunnel or excavation.

Fathom

Six feet.

Fault

A dislocation or displacement of a lode.

Feeder

A small vein which joins the main lode.

Ferriferous

Containing iron.

Fissure Vein

A cleft in the earth's crust filled with mineral matter, and extending in depth for a considerable distance.

Float Gold

Minute particles of gold floating on running water.

Floor

Where the lode turns and lies in a horizontal position.

Floured Mercury

Mercury which has become useless for amalgamation purposes by reason of its having a film on it caused by some base substance.