Corporate accounts and statements are juggled for various reasons. One of the most common of these is to make a good showing for the administration in power. Sometimes misleading statements are put out to enable officers and directors to buy or sell shares of their own company to advantage. Sometimes promotion promises require dividends when dividends should not be declared and the accounts are so juggled as apparently to authorize these unjustified dividends.

While the technical intricacies of juggling corporate accounts so as to present false or misleading statements to the general body of shareholders and to the public cannot be here discussed, it is no doubt clear to every reader of this volume that many accounting entries are matters of judgment and good faith; and whenever one of these essentials is lacking, the company's accounting statements may be technically accurate and yet may conceal the truth. There are numberless variations in method.

The growing demand for the proper auditing of corporate accounts has been a strong factor in discouraging their juggling. The development of a well-educated financial public has also been a factor in restricting such practices.