1 D. Carota L. St hispid; petioles veined beneath; lvs. tripinnate or tripin-natifid, the tegm. linear, cuspidate-pointed; umbel3 dense, concave. - The word kar in Celtic signifies red, hence carrot. Naturalized in fields and by roadsides, abundant in the Mid. States. Rt. fusiform. St. 2 to 3f high, branching. Lvs. numerous, divided in a thrice pinnatifid manner, pale green. Umbels large and very compact, with white fls. blooming all the summer. Cultivation has produced several varieties. Jl - Sept. § ‡
2 D. pusillus Mx. St. slender, retrorsely scabrous-hispid ; lfts. pubescent, bipin-natifid, divisions deeply lobed with linear-oblong, merely acute segm,; invol. bipin-nalifid; fr. muricate with barbed prickles. - Dry soils, Savannah (Pond) to S. Car. and La. Sts. 6 to 18' high. Umbels small, an inch or two broad, enveloped in the many-cleft involucre. Sds. smaller than in the Carrot.
13. BUPLEU'RUM, Tourn. Modesty. Thorough-wax. (Gr. an ox, a rib; from the veined leaves of some of the species.) Calyx margin obsolete; petals somewhat orbicular, entire, with a broad, closely inflexed point; fruit laterally compressed; carpels 5-ribbed, lateral ones marginal; seed teretely convex; flattish on the face. - Herbaceous or shrubby. Lvs. mostly reduced to entire phyllo-dia. Invol. various. Fls. yellow.
B. rotundifolium L. Lvs. (phyllodia) roundish-ovate, entire, perfoliate; invol. 0; involucels of 5, ovate, mucronate bracts; fr. with very slender ribs, intervals smooth, mostly without vittse. - (1) In cultivated grounds and fields, N. Y., Penn., and Ind., rare. St. If or more high, branching. Lvs. 1 to 3' long; 3/4 as wide, rounded at base, acute at apex, very smooth. Umbels 5 to 9-rayed. Jnvolucels longer than the umbellets. Fr. crowned with the wax-like, shining base of the styles (stylopodium.) Jl., Aug.
14. ANE'THUM, Tourn. Dill. Fennel. (Gr. to burn; the plant (its seeds) is very stimulating.) Calyx margin obsolete ; petals involute, with a broad, retuse apex ; fruit ovate or oblong, laterally sub-compressed ; carpels with 5 obtuse ribs, the lateral ones marginal; intervals with single vittae, commissure with 2. - Umbels perfect, with no invol. or involucels. Fls. yellow.
1 A. graveolens L. Dill. Fr. elliptical, compressed, surrounded by aflat, diluted margin; lvs. tripinnate, segm. capillary; umbels on long stalks. - Native of S. Europe. The oval, flat, brown seeds are aromatic, pungent, and medio-nal. %
2 A. Faeniculum L. Fennel. Lvs. biternately dissected, segm. linear-subulate, elongated; rays of the umbel numerous, unequal, spreading; carp turgid, ovate-oblong. - Native of England, etc. Cultivated in gardens. St. 3 to 5f high, terete, branched. Lvs. large and smooth, finely cleft into numerous, very aar-row segments. Jl. - The seeds are warmly aromatic. ‡ Fceniculum viugare Gaert.)
15. THAS'PIUM, Nutt. Golden Alexanders. (From the Ifle of Thaspia, which gave name to the ancient allied genus Thapsia.) Calyx margin 5-toothed ; petals elliptic, with an inflexed point; fruit elliptical, compressed laterally and didymous; carpels convex, with 5 prominent or winged ribs, the lateral margined; intervals with single vittae. - Ц Umbels without an invol. Involucels 3-leaved, lateral. Fls. yellow or dark purple.
§ Leaves 1 or 2 -ternate, the radical often simple...........
...........Nos. 1, 2
§ Leaves thrice ternate; stem often pubescent at the nodes........
1 T. aureum Nutt. Lvs. mostly biternate, Ifts. thin, oval-lanceolate; sharply serrate; umbellets with short rays; fr. oblong oval, 10-winged. - Hills and meadows, U. S. and Can. Sts. 1 to 2f high, branching above, rather slender, erect, hollow, angular-furrowed, smooth. Lower lvs. on long petioles, the lfts. with coarse ser-ratures, and sometimes quinate, the very lowest one sometimes simple. Umbels about 2' broad, of 10 to 15 rays, the umbellets dunse. Fls. numerous, orange-yellow. Fr. oval, brown, Rt. black, tufted. Jn.
ß. apterum Gray. Fr. with sharp and prominent ribs, not ringed. (Smyr-nium aureum L. Zizia aureum Koch.)
2 T. cordatum Nutt. Radical lvs. simple, cordate, cremate, cauline ones ternate, stalked, segm. acute, serrate; umbels terminal; fr. roundish oval, 6-winged.- Shady hills and barrens, U. S. and Can., rare in N. Eng St. erect, slightly branched, smooth, 2 to 3f high. Rt. lvs. on long stalks, rouniish, heart-shaped, the rest ternate, becoming only 8-parted above, all light green. Umbels dense, with yellow Hs. Fr. black, oval, with 3 prominent, paler, winged ridges on each side. May, Jn. (Smyrnium cordatum Mx. Zizia cordatum DC.)
β. atropurpureum. Fls. dark purple. - N. Y. to Tenn. (Thapsia trifoliata L.) y. apterum Gray. Fr. with prominent sharp ribs, scarcely winged (Zizia cordata Koch).
3 T. barbinode Nutt. St. pubescent at the nodes; lower lvs. triternate, upper biternate, segm. cuueate-ovate, acute or acuminate, unequally and incisely serrate, entire towards the base; umbels terminal and opposite the leaves; fr. elliptical, large (3" long), 6-winged. - River banks, Can. and U. S. St. 2 to 3f high, angular and grooved, branching above. Lvs. smooth, upper ones sub-opposite; segm. 1 to 2' by 1/2 to 1 1/4'. Rays about 2' long, each about 20 flowered. Petals deep yellow. Jn.
4 T. pinnatifidum Gray. St. rough puberulent above; lvs. thrice ternate, the upper biternate and ternate, Ifts. pinnatifid with linear or oblong segm.; fr. oblong, narrowly 8-winged, small (2" long). - Barrens, Ky. to E. Tenn. and W. Car. (Zizia pinnatifida Buckley).
16. ZIZ'IA, Koch. Golden Alexanders. (Dedicated to I. B. Ziz, a, Rhenish botanist.) Calyx margin obsolete; petals carinate, apex acuminate, inflexed; fr. oval, contracted at the commissure and didymous; carpels with 5 slightly prominent ribs; intervals with 3 vittas, commissure with 4 ; carpophore 2-partcd; seeds terete or 5-angled.-