14. HESPERIS, L. Rocket. (Gr. έσπέρa, evening; when the flower is most fragrant.) Calyx closed, furrowed at base, shorter than the claws of the petals; petals bent obliquely, linear or obovate; silique 4-sided, 2-edged or subterete; seeds not margined; stigmas forked, with the apices converging (0||). - Fls. cyanic.
1 H. matronalis L. St. simple, erect; lvs. lanceolate-ovate, denticulate; petals emarginate. mucronate; pedicels as long as the calyx. - A fine garden perennial, said to bo found native about Lake Huron. St. 3 - 9f high. Fls. purple, often double, and white in β hortensis. June - Aug. † Eur.
2 H. aprica L. St. erect, simple, pubescent: lvs. oblong, obtuse, entire, ciliate hispid; pedicels as long as the calyx. - From Siberia. Stem a foot high. Fls. purple. May, Jn., †.
15. SIN APIS, Tourn. Mustard. (The Greek name, σіvaπí.) Sepals equal at base, spreading; petals ovate, with straight claws; siliques subterete; valves veined; style short and subulate, or ensiform; seeds in a single series, globular (0>>). - Fls. always yellow.
X S. nigra L. Black Mustard. Smooth; silique smooth, somewhat 4-angled, appressed to the rachis, and beaked with a slender, 4-sided style.- In cultivated grounds and waste placea St. 3 - 6f high, round, smooth, striate, branching. Lvs. all petiolate, lower ones variously lyrate and dentate, upper ones lance-linear, pendulous, entire. Sep. and pet. sulphur-yellow. Pods very numerous, nearly 1' long. Sds. numerous, small, globous, nearly black, well known as a condiment. Jn., July., ‡ § Eur.
2 S. arvensis L. Field Mustard. Si. and leaves hairy; silique smooth, many-angled, torulous, spreading, about 3 times longer than the slender, ancipital style. - Naturalized in N. Y. (T. and G.) and in Vt. (Robbins). Lower lvs. large, subly-rate-pinnatifid, upper ones oblong-ovate, all repand-toothed. Silique somewhat spreading, 1 1/2' long. Sds. large and black. Jn.. Aug:., § Eur.
3 S alba L. White Mustard. Lvs. smoothish; siliques hispid, torose, shorter Than the ensiform beak sds. large, pale yellow.- Native of Europe. St. 2 - 5f high, thinly hirsute. Lvs. all lyrately pinnate, dentate, petiolate. Siliques spreading, about 4-seeded. The seeds are used for about the same purposes as those of S. nigra, esteemed in medicine. Jn., Jl. ‡.
16. BRASSICA, L. Cabbage, etc. (Celtic bresic, the cabbage.) Sepals equal at base, (mostly) erect; petals obovate; filaments without teeth; silique sub-compressed, valves concave, with a central vein; style short, subterete, obtuse; seeds globous, in a single (often double) row (0>>). - Fls. yellow.
1 B. campestris L. Cale. Lvs. somewhat fleshy and glaucous, the lower lyrate-dentate, subciliate, upper ones cordate-amplexicaul, acuminate. - Cultivated fields and waste places. St. 1 1/2 - 3f high, with a few, scattered, reversed hairs below. Lower lvs. 3 - 7' long, 1/3 as wide, upper smaller, entire, with rounded clasping lobes at base, tapering to an obtuse point. Rac. 1 - 2f long. Sep. erect, spreading. Cor. yellow, 4 - 5" diam. Siliques I 1/2' long, with the style 1/2'. Sds. small, dark brown. Jn., Jl. § Sweden.
l3 Rutabaga. Swedish Turnip. Rt. tumid, napiform, subglobous, yellowish. - Cultivated like the common turnip: but after a thorough experiment, it is conceded oy farmers to be inferior in value to that root, although it grows to an enormous size. ‡.
2 B. rapa L. Radical lvs. lyrate, rough, not glaucous, cauline ones incised, upper entire, smooth. ‡.
β depressa. Common Turnip. Rt. depressed, globous or napiform, contracted below into a slender radicle.- Long cultivated for the table, etc., in gardens and fields. St. 2 - 4f high, and with the leaves deep green. Upper lvs. amplexicaul. Pods 1'long. Sds. small, reddish-brown. Jn. ‡
3 B. oleracea L. Cabbage. Lvs. very smooth and glaucous, fleshy, repand-toothed or lobed. - Native of Europe, where it grows on rocky shores and cliffs, with no appearance of a head, forming a surprising contrast with the cultivated varieties. The excellence of the cabbage as a pot-herb needs no encomium. % y Botrytis-cauliflora. Cauliflower. St. low; hds. thick, compact, terminal; fls. abortive, on short, fleshy peduncles. ‡.
β bullata. Savoy Cabbage. Lvs. curled, subcapitate when young, finally expanding.
δ botrytis asparagoides. Broccoli. St. taller; hds. subramous; branches fleshy at the summit, consisting of clusters of abortive flower-buds. ‡.
έ capitata. Head Cabbage. St. short; lvs. concave, packed in a dense head before flowering; rac. paniculate. ‡.
17. ALYSSUM, L. Madwort. (Gr. a, privative, λύσσa, rage; supposed by the ancients to allay anger.) Calyx equal at base; petals entire; some of the stamens with teeth; silicle orbicular or oval, with valves flat or convex in the centre; seeds 1 - 4 in each cell (0=).- Showy European herbs.
1 A. saxatile L. Rock Alyssum. Madwort. St. suftruticous at base, sub-corymbous; lvs. lanceolate, entire, downy; silicle obovate-orbicular, 2-seeded; sds. margined. - An early-flowering garden perennial, native of Candia. St. 1 f high, with numerous yellow flowers in close corymbous bunches. Apr., May. †.
2 A. maritimum Lam. Sweet Alyssum. St. suffruticous and procumbent at base; lvs. linear-lanceolate, acute, somewhat hoary; pods oval, smooth.- A sweet-scented garden plant, with fine leaves and small white flowers. St. a foot in length. Fls. from Jn. to Oct - All the species of Alyssum are of easy culture in common loamy soils. †.