Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2125 straw or chaff, there being but one scale to the flower.) Spike many-flowered; glumes imbricated all around; interior scale 1, embracing the flower and fruit; bristles 0; stamens 1; style 2-cleft, not bulbous at base, deciduous; achenium compressed, oblong, subterete. - Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2126 Low, tufted, with setaceous culms and leaves.

H. subsquarrosa Nees. Culm setaceous, compressed, sulcate, recurved, 2 - 3' high; lvs. setaceous, shorter than the scape; spikes 2 - 3, terminal (appa' rently lateral), subsessile, ovoid, nearly 2" long; invol. of 2 bracts, one appeartog like a continuation of the scape, thrice longer than the other; glumes Co, with a short, recurved or squarrous point, finally brown; ach. minute, of a dull, brownish-white. - Sandy banks, N. Eng. to Penn., Ky. and S. States. (Isolepis, Schrad.)

9. LIPOCAR'PHA, Brown. Spikes many-flowered; glumes spatu-late, imbricated all around; interior scales 2, thin, subequal, involving the flower and the fruit; perianth none; stamens 1; style 2 or 3-fid; achenium coated with the scales. - Culms leafy at base. Spikes numerous, collected into an involucrate, terminal head.

L. niaculata Torr. Culms triangular, 3 to 8' high, longer than the narrowly linear, often involute, smooth leaves; invol of 2 long lvs. and 1 short one, spikes 3 or 4, ovoid, acute, closely aggregated; glumes very numerous, acute, narrowed to the base, white hyaline, marked with red dots, green along the midvein, longer than the 2 interior scales (spikelet); stamen 1; style bifid, longer than the tawny, oblong achenium. - Wet grounds, Ga. to Fla. (Kylliugia Mx.)

10. FIMBRIS'TYLIS, Vahl. (Lat. fimbris, a fringe, stylus, style; from the ciliate style.) Glumes imbricated on all sides; bristles 0; style compressed, 2-cleft, bulbous at base, deciduous, often ciliate on the margin. -Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2127 With the habit of Scirpus. Lvs. mostly radical.

§ Spikes in a subsimple umbel, rusty brown, few, as thick as a pepper-corn.

Nos. 1,2

§ Spikes in a dense head. Invol. very long. (No. 3.) Spikes 2 only, lateral.

(No, 4).Nos. 3, 4

1 F. spadicea Vahl. Culm 1 to 3f high, hard and rigid, flattened, channeled; lvs. semi-terete, filiform, channeled; umbel of few rays, longer than the 2 or 3 subulate lvs. of the invol.; spikes few, ovoid-oblong becoming oblong-cylindric, when old, 3 to 6" long, 2" thick; glumes broad-ovate, mucronate, rust-colored, finally dark chestnut brown; stam. 2 or 3; style fringe-pubescent; ach. whitish, minutely dotted. - Marshes, N. Y. to Fla, W. to Ill. (Lapham). Jl. - Sept. (F. cas-taneus Mx.)

β. ferruginea. Umbel of many rays, somewhat compound. (F. ferrugineus Vahl.)

2 F. laxa Vahl. Culm 2 to 12' high, flattened, striate; lvs. flat, linear, glaucous, rough-edged, shorter than the culm; umbel few-rayed, shorter than one of the leaves of the involucre; spikes ovoid, acute, 3" long; glumes ovate, brown; stamen 1; sty. dark purple, fringed; ach. whitish, with 6 to 8 prominent ridges lengthwise. - Clay soils, Penn. to I1l and S. States. Jl. - Sept. (F. Baldwinii Torr.)

3 F. argentea Vahl. Glaucous; culms tufted, 2 to 4' high, setaceous, compressed; lvs. radical, filiform, as long as the culms; spikes 5 to 8 cylindric-oblong, acute, sessile, straw-colored, in a dense head; invol. 3 or 4-leaved, many limes longer than the head, usually longer than the culm; glumes 20 or more, lance-ovate, mucronate; stam. 1; sty. 2-cleft, ciliolate; ach. white minute. - Ga! to La. (F. congesta Torr.)

4 F. distachya Chapman? Culms setaceous, leafless, tufted, 3 to 4' high; spikes 2, globular-ovoid, lateral, sessile near the top of the culm, 1" long, dark brown; glumes very numerous; sty. 2-cleft; ach. minute, but as long as the glume. - Mid. Fla. (Chapman. It is Hemicarpha subsquarrosa Nees.)

11. TRICHELOS'TYLIS, Listiboudois. (Gr.Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2128 threefold,

Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2129 ; from the character.) Glumes in 4 to 8 ranks, carinate; bristles none; style 3-cleft, deciduous below the bulb (if any) at the base; achenium triangular. - Order CLV Cyperaceae The Sedges Part 7 2130 Sts. leafy at the base. Spikes in a terminal head or umbel.

§ Spikes in a compound umbel, oblong, ferruginous............................................

Nos. 1, 2

§ Spikes in a subsimple umbel, 2 to 4 to 6, chestnut colored................................

No. 3

§ Spikes in a dense head, greenish. In voluere leaves dilated at base................

Nos. 4, 5

§ Spikes solitary, greenish, lateral near the summit of the culm...........................

No. 6

1 T. autumnalis. Culm compressed, 2-edged, caespitous, leafy at base, 3 - 10' high; lvs. flat, linear, shorter than the stem; umbel compound, diffuse; invol 2-leaved; spikelets lanceolate, acute, somewhat 4-sided, 2 - 3 together; glumes brown, mucronate; ach. white. - Wet places, along rivers, etc., N. Eng.! to Ga., W. to Mo. July. (Fimbristilis, R. & S.)

2 T. coarctata. Culm filiform, teretish, 8 to 12' high; lvs. setaceous, with bearded sheaths; umbel compound, contracted; invol. lvs. many, short setaceous, one a little longer than the umbel; spikes 15 to 20, linear-oblong, 3" long; glumes about 12, acute, rust-colored; stam. 2; sty. deeply 3-cleft; ach. obovate, 3-angled. - Dry, sandy soils, S. Car. to Fla. (Isolepis Torr. Scirpus Ell.)

3 T. capillaris. Culm caespitous, nearly naked, 3-angled, capillary, 4 - 8' high; lvs. subradical, setaceous, shorter than the stem; spikes ovoid, 2 - 4, in a simple umbel, inner one sessile; glumes oblong, ferruginous, margin pubescent; ach. white. - In sandy fields, Mass. to Fla., W. to Ky. and Ohio. Aug. (Isolepis, R. & S. I. ciliatifolius, Ell., a taller form (7 to 10') with 4 to 6 spikes.)

4 T. stenophylla. Culms twisted, 2 to 4' high, setaceous, as long as the setaceous lvs.; spikes 4 to 6, ovoid, acute, few-flowered, sessile, in a dense head; invol. lvs. 3 or 4, dilated at base, ciliate, 2 or 3 times longer (3 to 12") than the head; glumes ovate-acuminate, keeled, greenish; sty. 3-cleft; ach. short-triangular, black-pruinous when mature. - Dry soils, Car. to Fla. Jl. - Sept. (Isolepis, Kunth. Scirpus, Ell.)

5 T. Warei. Culm filiform, terete, furrowed, near If high; lvs. 2 to 3'long, channeled; spikes 6 to 12, ovoid, in a dense head; invol. lvs. 3 or 4, longer than the head, base dilated and cut-fringed; glumes ovate, obtuse, ciliate; ach. white, rugulous, obovate-triangulan - W, Fla. (Ware, Torr. Cyp.). Very near the preceding. (Isolepis, Torr.)