39. ERAGROS'TIS, Beauv. Spikelets 5 to ∞(rarely fewer)-flowered, compressed; glumes and fls. membranous; lower pale carinate, 3-veined, not webbed, upper pale persistent on the flexuous rachis after the free caryopsis has fallen with the lower. - Hairy or roughish grasses with involute lvs., sheaths at throat and axil of branches often bristly and fls. in panicles, the branches mostly scattered. (Poa, L.)
§ Spikelets few-flowered (fls. 2 to 4, rerely more).................................................
Nos. 10, 9, 3
§ Spikelets many-flowered (fls. 5 to 30), (b)
b Pnnicle diffuse, capillary, longer than the rest of the culm............
Nos. 7, 6 5,
b Panicle contracted, rather dense. - Culms decumbent below............
Nos. 4, 3, 2,
- Culms procumbent, creeping.......
1 E. reptans Nees. Culm branched, creeping, rooting at the joints, 6 - 12'; lvs. subulate, flat, 2 - 3' long; sheaths open, pilous on the margin and throat; pan. 1 - 2' long, branches short, simple, in fascicles, few-flowered; spikelets linear-lanceolate, with 12 - 20 acuminate flowers. - On sandy banks of rivers, N. Y. to Ky. and La. Jl, Aug. - The plant is somewhat dioecious.
2 E. poaeoides Beauv. Culm oblique or decumbent, geniculate, 1 - 2f long; lvs. lanceolate, attenuate at end, scabrous on the margin and above; sheaths pilous at the throat; stip. short, bearded; panicle expanding, branches subdivided, flexuous, subpilous in the axils; spikelets ovate-oblong, 12 - 20-flowered; glumes nearly equal. - A fine-looking grass, fields and waste grounds, common. Jl., Aug. § Eur. It has a strong, peculiar odor. Varies much; the later growth are in more dense tufts, with smaller spikelets. (E. megastachya Lk. P. Era-grostis L.)
3 E. pilosa L. Culms in tufts, geniculate, ascending, 6 to 12'; lvs. narrow-linear, or subulate, short; sheaths slightly bearded at the throat; pan. oblong, some of the middle branches opposite; spikelets linear, bluish, about as long (3 to 4") as the pedicels, 6 to 12-flowered, the rachis at length becoming pectinate or serrulate with the persistent upper pales. - In sandy or gravelly waste places, Conn, to Ga. and W. States. Jl., Aug. § Eur. (E. pectinacea Mx., a more appropriate name, as the plant is scarcely pilous.)
4 E. conferta Trin. Culm rather stout, geniculate below, branched, 2 to 3f; lvs. broad-lanceolate, rough, flat, and sheaths naked; pan. long (3 to 12'), narrow, branches and branchlets very numerous, suberect, each racemous with the email, numerous spikelets which are 7 to 11-flowered and only 1 1/2" long; pales hyaline, ovate, pointed, 3-veined. - Car. to Ga. and La. (Poa conferta Ell.) The 2 pale fall together.
5 E. nitida. Culm erect, glabrous and polished as well as the whole plant, 12 to 20'. Lvs. long, linear, involute when dry, with a few hairs at top of sheath; pan. diffuse, much longer than the culm; spikelets lanceolate, about 8-flowered, hyaline glumes and pales sharply serrulate on the keel. - S. Car. and adjacent
islands. Jn. - Aug. (Poa nitida Ell.)
6 E. hirsuta. Culm subsimple, compressed, erect, 1 - 2f; lvs. lance-linear, attenuate at end, surpassing the stem, hairy at base; sheaths loose, longer than the inter-nodes, lower ones hairy, upper ones smooth; stip. fringed; panicle very large, capillary, branches spreading, reflexed in fruit, hirsute in the axils; spikelets oblong, 2 to 3", purplish, 5 to 16-flowered, long pedicelled; pale ovate, acute, distinctly 3-veined, upper ciliate. - Sandy fields, U. S. Jl., Aug. The rachis never (?) becomes pectinate. (Poa hirsuta Mx.) - Varies with the lvs. and sheaths nearly smooth and spikelets larger (P. spectabilis Ph.) Also with the whole panicle, except the spikelets, hirsute like the axils. And thirdly, with the spikelets racemously oppressed along the branchlets (P. refracta Ell.)
7 E. Purshii Schrad. Culm decumbent at base, ascending 6 to 12 or 20'; lvs. subulate, 1 to 3' long, upper surface rough; sheaths very hairy at throat; pan. long and loose, the lower branches, or all, hairy in their axils; ped. capillary, longer than the spikelets which are lance-oblong; 5 to 12-flowered; pales merely acute, purplish. - Dry fields, Md. to Ga., common. Jl., Aug. (P. tenella ? Ph. Ell.)
8 E. capillaris Nees. Culm branched at base, smooth, 1 to 2f; lvs. linear, attenuated above, flat, smooth; sheaths striate, with long hairs about the throat and margin; stip. short; pan. very large (near a foot long) with diffusely spreading, capillary branches, axils not bearded, or the lower slightly: spikelets ovate, acute, about 3-flowered, on rather rigid, long, capillary pedicels; pales scabrous, |" long, acute, the 2 side veins scarcely visible. - Dry grounds, U. S. Aug.
9 E. trichodes. Culm simple, 12 to 20', erect; lvs. long (10 to 18"), rough, thinly hairy, as well as the sheaths, throat with long hairs; pan. rather longer than culm, narrow, capillary, only the lower axils bearded; spikelets not colored, 2 to 5 (mostly 3)-flowered; pales and gls. hyaline, distinctly 3-veined, lanceolate, 1 1/2" long. - Sandy soils, S. and W. States. (P. trichodes Nutt. P. tenuis Ell.)
10 E. erythrogona Nees. Culms very branching, in tufts, ascending 3 to 10'; joints a narrow red ring; lvs. narrow, convolute when dry, the upper about equaling the oblong, rather dense panicle; spikelets 2 to 5 (mostly 3)-flowered, 1 to 1 1/2" long, bluish; gls. lanceolate; pales ovate, all acute and nearly veinless. - . Waste and cultivated grounds, Penn. (Jackson) to Ill. and South. Whole plant bluish.
40. PO'A, L. Spear Grass. Meadow Grass. (Gr. grass.)
Spikelets 2 to 5 (rarely 9)-flowered, compressed; glumes subequal, point-loss, shorter than the contiguous flowers; pales herbaceous, soft-awnless, the lower compressed-carinate, 5-veined, usually clothed on the veins below with a cobweb-like, matted wool, the upper pale bicarinate; stigmas simply plumous; caryopsis free. - Smooth grasses with soft flat lvs., the fls. paniculate.