8 Q. triloba Mx. Downy Black Oak. Lvs. oblong-cuneiform, acute at the base, on very short petioles, 3-lobed at the end, rusty-tomentous beneath, lobes mu-cronate with setaceous awns, middle one longer; fruit with a flat cup and a de-pressed-globous acorn. - A tree of rapid growth, 25 to 40f high, in the pine barrens of N. J. to Fla. Lvs. very large, those of the young shoots 8 to 12' long and often 5-lobed, approaching, perhaps, too closely the next May. - It has been recommended for hedges.
9. Q. Catesbaei Mx. Barren Scrub Oak. Lvs. short-petiolate, cuneate at base, deeply sinuate-lobed, glabrous on both sides, lobes 3 to 5, divaricate, acute and setaceous-pointed, simple or toothed with setaceous-pointed teeth; cup large, turbinate, half covering the ovoid nut, scales obtuse, the upper inflexed. - Pine barrens, Car. to Ga. A tree 20 to 25f high, with large and very irregular leaves, 6 to 10' long and nearly as wide, smooth, at length coriaceous, deciduous. Cup about 8" broad, nut covered with an ashy meal. May.
10 Q. ilicifolia Willd. Shrub or Scrub Oak. Bear Oak. Lvs. petiolate, obo-vate-cuneate, with 3 or 5 angular lobes, entire on the margin, whitish downy beneath; cup subturbinate; acorn ovoid. - A shrub, common throughout the U. S., growing only on gravelly hills and barrens, which it occupies exclusively in largo tracts. St. 3 to 4f high, divided into numerous straggling branches. Lvs. 3 to 4' long, petioles 6 to 12". Acorns 6" loan, abundant, and said to bo greedily eaten by bears, deer, and swine. May. (Q. Bannisteri Mx.)
β. ? Georgiana. Lvs. glabrous, except a tuft in the axils of the veins; cup flat, covering only one-fourth of the ovoid nut. - On stone Mt, Ga.!. (Q. Georgiana Ravanel.)
11 Q. rubra L. Red Oak. Lvs. on long petioles, smooth, obtusely sinuate, lobes rather acute, shallow, incisely dentate; acorn large; cup shallow and flat, smoothish; nut turgid-ovoid. - The red oak is the most common species in the Northern States and in Canada, It is a lofty, wide-spreading tree, 70 f in height, with a diameter of 3 or 4. Leaves 6 - 10' long, smooth on both sides, with deep and rounded sinuses between the narrow, mucronate lobes. The flowers appear in May, succeeded by large acorns (9" long) contained in cups so shallow as rather to resemble saucers. The wood is reddish, coarse-grained, of little value as timber, but excellent fuel.
12 Q. palustris Mx. Pin Oak. Water Oak. (Figs. 6 - 9.) Lvs. on long petioles, oblong, deeply lobed with broad, rounded sinuses, smooth, axils of the veins tufted-villous beneath, lobes divaricate, rather narrow, dentate, acute; cup flat, smooth; acorn small, nearly spherical. - The pin oak is most luxuriant in the W. States, and the adjacent districts of other States, rare in N. Eng., growing in swamps and cold, clay soils. Height 60 to 80f, with a diameter of 2 to 4, and light, open foliage. Bark blackish. Leaf lobes narrower than the spaces between. Wood coarse-grained, little esteemed as timber. Acorns 7" long, round, in shallow cups. May.
13 Q. falcata L. Spanish Oak. Lvs. long-petiolate, elongated, obtuse or rounded at base, ashy-tomentous beneath, deeply sinuate lobed, lobes 5 to 7, rarely 3, narrow, bristle-pointed, simple or toothed, more or less falcate; acorn small, roughened, globular, cup shallow, subsessile, its margin incurved. - Va. to Fla,, in the lower districts. A tree of large dimensions, 60 to 70f high, most flourishing in Mid, Fla Lvs. 5 to 6' long, on vigorous shoots much larger, petioles about 2' long. Cup 6" across, 1 1/2" deep. Nut fuscous, with a brown, astringent seed. Timber reddish, coarse-grained. Apr., May.
β. trinacrius. Lvs. 3 and 5-lobed. the terminal lobe long and narrow-lanceolate, narrowed to its base; petioles 3' long. - Large trees at Tallahassee.
14 Q. tinctoria Bartram. Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak. Lvs. obovate-oblong, sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid, pubescent beneath, finally glabrous, lobes oblong, obtuse, mucronate; cup thick, shallow; acorn depressed globous. - Found throughout the U. S. It is one of the loftiest trees of the forest, 80 to 90f in height, and 4 to 5f diam. Bark deeply furrowed, black or deep brown, yellow within. Lvs. 6 to 8' long, broadest toward the end, quite variable, yellowish after frost. Acorns brown, 7" diam., about half covered with the subsessile, scaly cup, which is 9" diam. Bark used in tanniug, also yields quercitron, a useful dye.
15 Q. coccinea Wang. Scarlet Oak. Lvs. on long petioles, oblong in outline, deeply sinuate-pinnatifid, smooth and shining both sides, nearly truncate at base, lobes divaricate, dentate, acute; cup turbinate, scaly; acorn short, ovate. - Most abundant in the Middle and Southern States, but is often met with in the more southern parts of N. Eng. to Ill. It is a large tree, 80f in height, with a diameter of 3 or 4. Leaves of a bright, shining green, with 3 or 4 deep sinuses each side, remarkably rounded and broad at the base. By the frosts of autumn they are changed to scarlet, unlike those of the red oak, which become dull red or brown. Acorns large, similarly rounded at both ends, half immersed in the cup. Bark very thick, used in tanning.
16 Q. heterophylla Mx. Bartram's Oak. Lvs. on long petioles, coriaceous, oblong or oblong-ovate, round or subcordate at base, margin with a few shallow, tooth-like lobes, or often only wavy, lobes setaceous-acuminate; acorn subglobous, in a hemispherical cup; scales of the cup oblong-ovate, obtuse. - Ohio to Ill., rare. Lvs. exceedingly variable, 4 to 6' by 1 1/2 to 2', smooth and shining above, tomen-tous along the veins beneath, generally broad and abrupt at base. Fruit 9" diam. (Q. Leana Nutt. ? Clark.) Our specimens well agree to Michaux's figure and character.
17 Q. alba L. "White Oak. (Fig. 139.) Lvs. short-petioled, cuneate at base, oblong in outline, at length coriaceous and smooth, sinuate-pinnatifid, lobes subequal, obtuse; acorn sessile; nut ovoid or oblong, only a third immersed in the subhemi-spherical, tubercular cup. - U. S. and Can. A tree preeminent among the sons of the forest for grandeur, strength, and usefulness. With a diameter of 4 to 6f, it attains the height of 70 to 80f, but its magnitude varies greatly with the soil. Lvs. 3 to 5' long, downy beneath when young. Acorn 8 to 9" long. Bark whitish. Timber useful for innumerable purposes, and the bark for tanning and in medicine. May, Jn.