Herbs small, growing in water or wet places, with showy, bilabiate fls. on scapes. Calyx inferior, of 2 or 3 sepals. Corolla irregular, bilabiate, personate, spurred. Stamens 2, included within the corolla and inserted on its upper lip. Anth. 1-celled. Ovary 1-celled, with a free, central placenta. Style 1. Stigma cleft. Fruit. Capsule many-seeded. Seeds minute. Embryo straight, with no albumen.
Genera 4. species 175, natives of swamps, pools, and rivulets, diffused throughout nearly all countries. Properties unimportant.
1. PINGUIC'ULA, L. Butterwort. (Lat, pinguis, fat, from the greasy appearance of the leaves.) Calyx 5-parted, somewhat bilabiate; cor. bilabiate or rarely subregular, upper lip bifid or 2-parted, lower trifid or 3-parted, spurred at base beneath ; sta. 2, very short; stig. sessile, 2-lobed ; caps, erect; seeds .∞- In wet places. Lvs. radical, rosulate, entire. Scapes 1-fiowered, nodding.
* Flowers blue.....Nos. 1, 2, 3.
** Flowers yellow.... .No. 4
1 P vulgaris L. Lvs. ovate or elliptic, obtuse, unctuous-puberulent above, scape and calyx subpubescent; cor. lips very unequal, lobes obtuse, entire; spur cylindrical, shorter than the corolla.-Wet rocks and thin, damp soils, N. Y. (near Rochester, Dewey, Beck.) N. to Arctic Am. (Hooker.) Scape 6-8' high, with solitary, nodding fls. Leaves all springing from the root, fleshy, spatulate or ovate, with a tapering base, fleshy and unctuous to the touch. Corolla with a purple tube, lined with soft hairs. Flowering early in Apr. and May.
2 P. elatior Mx. Lvs. ovate-spatulate, scape villous at base; cal. glandular-puberulent; cor. tube ventricous, hairy within, lobes subequal, emarginate, ; spur compressed, obtuse, about half as long as the tube.-Wet grounds, S. Car. to Fla., more common in the middle districts. The lvs. are very small proportionately (scarcely 1' long in our specimens), while the slender and bractless scape is 8 to 14' high. Sep. oblong, obtuse, the 2 lower approximating. Cor. 1' to 15" long, greenish blue? with purple lines. Mar., Apr.
3 P. pumila Mx. Dwarf Butterwort. Lvs. roundish-ovate, glabrous; cor. tube oblong, lobes emarginate, spur nearly as long as the tube, nearly acute; caps, globous.-Ga. and Fla. to La., common in springy places. Lvs. 3 to 4" diam., thin. Scapes filiform, 2 to 4' high. Fls. vary in size with the plant, from 3" to 7" long, pale blue. Apr.
4 P. lutea Walt. Lvs. obovate, elliptic; cor. bell-shaped, palato hairy, lobes subequal, sinuate-dentate; spur slender, a third as long as the cor.-Car. to Fla., common in the low country in wet grounds. Lvs. 1' long, nearly as wide, soft, yellowish green, curled, the scape about 6' high. Fls. much smaller than in No. 2, bright yellow. Spur 2 to 3" long. Mar., Apr.
2. UTRICULA'RIA, L. Bladderwort. (Lat. utricula, a little bottle; alluding to the air vessels appended to the roots.) Calyx 2-parted, lips subequal; corolla irregularly bilabiate, personate, spurred ; stamens 2 ; stigma bilabiate ; capsule globular, 1-celled.-Herbs aquatic, loosely floating, or fixed in the mud.-Lvs. radical, multifid or linear and entire, mostly furnished with little inflated vescicles as buoys. Scape erect.
§ Floating. Scape involucrate, with a whorl of large, inflated petioles.......................
§ Floating. Scape naked. Branches producing bulblets and bladders (a).
a Flowers purple. Branches whorled, submersed.......................
a Flowers yellow. Leaves (2-ranked) and bladders on separate branches.....
a Flowers yellow. heaves (capillaceous) bearing the bladders (b).
b Spur acute or noteched, about as long as the lips.........................................
Nos. 4 to 6
b Spur obtuse, slant. Flowers of 2 kinds, the lipless down on the stems.
b Spur obtuse, short. Pedicels all on the scape. - erect in fruit..........................
-reeurved in fruit..........
U. inflata Walt. Upper lvs. in a whorl of 5 or 6 at the surface of the water; petiole and midvein inflated, lower lvs. capillaoeous, dissected, submerged; scape 4 to 5-flowered.- . In ponds, Me. to Fla. W. to Ohio. The proper stem (rhizome) is very long, branching, suspended in the water by innumerable minute air bladders, and the a or 6 involucrate, hollow lvs, which are many-cleft at the end. Fis. 4 or 5 together upon a scape 8' in length, pedunculated, with sheathing bracts. Spur nearly as long as the corolla, appressed to the lower lip, striate, emarginate. Cor. yellow, the upper lip broad-ovate, entire, lower 3-lobed. Aug.
2 U. purpurea Walt. St. long, floating, branched; lvs. submersed, fibrillous, verticillate, pinnately dissected, segments capillary, utrieulute; scape assurgent, 2-3-flowered upper lip roundish-truncate, lower lip larger, its lateral lobes cucul-late, smaller than the central; spur conical, flattened, appressed to and shorter than the upper lip.- Pools, Me. to Fla. W. to Wis. Readily known by the large, bright, purple fls. Stem 1-3f long. Leaves about 1 1/2' long. Utricles small. Scape 3-3' high. Corolla 8" broad, the spur 3", greenish. Aug.
3 U. intermedia Hay no. Lvs. all submersed, in 2 rows, alternate, dichotom-ously many-parted, segm. rigid, linear-subulate, ciliate-denticulate; leafless branches bearing all the bladders and terminal bulblets ; scapes 2 to 3-flowered, upper lip entire, twice as long as the palate; spur conical, acute; ped. of the fruit erect.-Swamps, Can. and N. States to Wis. Scape 4 to 8' high. Leafy-stems 3 to 6' long, and the loaves about 3" (in our specimens). Jn., Jl.
β? ROBBINSH. Leaf-segments linear-setaceous, flaccid, entire. 8 to 12" long; scape tall (7 to 12), 3 to 7-flowered; spur fusiform, acute, nearly as long as the lower lip.-Swarsps, Uxbridge, Northbridge, Mass. (Robbins).-Quite unlike the preceding in it3 leaves and spur.
4 U. striata Le Conte. Lvs. numerously subdivided, submerged, capillary, bearing the bladders, or vesicles; scape 2-6-flowered, with a few scales; flowers large, upper lip broad, divided into 3 lobes, the middle lobe striate with red, lower lip crenate, sides reflexed, having dark spots upon the palate; spur slender, obtuse, with a notch at the end, pressed against the lower lip of the corolla and nearly as long- Swamps, L. Isl. to Fla. Root submerged, slightly attached to the mud. Leaves (radicles ?) few, capillary, appendaged with few air vessels. Scape a foot high, generally with 2 flowers. June.