Herbs with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and generally a milky or colored juice. Fls. solitary, on long peduncles, never blue, hypogynous, regular, or . Sep. 2, rarely 3, caducous, and petals 4, rarely 6, all imbricated. Sta. indefinite, but some multiple of 4. Anthers 2-celled, innate. Ova. compound. Sly. short or 0. Stig. 2, or if more, stellate upon the flat apex of ovary. Fr. either pod-shaped, with 2 parietal placentas, or capsular, with several. Sds. ∞, minute. Embryo minute, at the base of oily albumen. (Figs. 229 - 231, 276.)
An order consisting of 15 genera and 130 species, more than two-thirds of which are natives of Europe. The order is characterised by active narcotic properties, principally resident in the turbid juice. Opium is the dried milky juice of Papaver soinniferum. The seeds are commonly rich in fixed oil. Several of the species are highly ornamental in cultivation.
¶ Plants with a red juice. Petals 8, plane in the bud...............................
¶ Plants with a yellow juice. Petals crumpled in the bud. (*)
* Stigmas and placenta 3, 4, or C. Capsule ovoid. (b)
* Stigmas and placentas 2 only. Capsule long, pod-shaped. (a)
a Pod l-celled, smooth. Lvs. pinnate.................................................
a Pod 2-celled, rough. Lvs. palmate.............................................
b Style distinct, but short.................................................
b Style none, stigma sessile.............................................
¶ Plants with a white juice. Petals 4, crumpled in bud.........................
¶ Plants with a watery juice. Calyx a mitre, falling off whole.................
1. SANGUINARIA, L. Blood-root. (Latin sanguis, blood; all its parts abound in a red juice.) Sepals 2, caducous; petals 8 - 12, in 2 or 3 rows, the outer longer. Stamens about 24; stigma sessile, 1 or 2-lobed; capsule silique-form, oblong, l-celled, 2-valved, acute at each end, many-seeded.- A low, acaulescent plant, with a white flower, and a glaucous, palmate-veined leaf.
S. Canadensis L. An interesting flower, in woods, Can. and U. S., appearing in early spring. Rhizome fleshy, tuberous, and when broken or bruised exudes an orange-red fluid, as also does every other part of the plant. From each bud of the root-stalk there springs a single large, glaucous leaf, and a scape about 6' high, with a single flower. Whole plant glabrous. Leaf kidney-shaped, with roundish lobes separated by rounded sinuses. Fl. of a quadrangular outline, white, scentless, and of short duration. The juice is emetic and purgative. Apr., May. (Fig. 557.)
β. Leaf not lobed, margin undulate. Bainbridge, Ga.
2. CHELIDONIUM, L. Celandine. (Gr. Xελíδωv, the swallow; being supposed to flower with the arrival of that bird, and to perish with its departure.) Sepals 2, suborbicular; petals 4, suborbicular, contracted at base; stamens 24 - 32, shorter than the petals; stigma 1, small, sessile, bifid; capsule silique-form, linear, 2-valved, 1-celled; seeds crested.- Fragile, pale green, with saffron yellow juice.
C. majus L. Lvs. pinnate; lfts. lobed, segments rounded; fls. in umbels. - By roadsides, fences, etc., arising 1 - 2f high. Lvs. smooth, glaucous, spreading, consisting of 2-4 pairs of leaflets with an odd one. Lfts. 1 1/2 -2 1/2' long, § as broad, irregularly dentate and lobed, the partial stalks winged at base. Umbels thin, axillary, pedunculate. Petals elliptical, entire, yellow, and very fugacious, like every other part of the flower. The abundant bright yellow juice is used to cure itch and destroy warts. May - Oct. § Eur.
3. GLAUCIUM, Tourn. Horn Poppy. (Gr. yλaĸov, glaucous, the hue of the foliage.) Sepals 2; petals 4; stamens ∞; style none, stigma 2-lobed; ped. 2-celled, linear, very long, rough.- or sea-green herbs, with clasping lvs., yellow juice, and solitary, yellow fls.
G. luteum Scop. Sparingly naturalized near the coast, from the Potomac southward. About 2f high, covered with a glaucous bloom. St. glabrous. Lvs. repandly 5 - 7-lobed, clasping so as to appear perfoliate. Fls. 2' broad, of short duration, but many in succession, succeeded by a horn-shaped fruit, which is rough with tubercles, and 6 - 9' in length. Jn. - Aug. §
4. ARGEMONE, L. Prickly Poppy. (Gr. aρyεµa, a disease of the eye, which this plant was supposed to cure.) Sepals 2 or 3, roundish, acuminate, caducous; petals 4 or 6, roundish, larger than the sepals; stamens go, stigma sessile, capitate, 4 or Grayed; capsule ovoid, prickly, opening at the top by valves.- Herbs with yellow juice, spinous-pinnatitid lvs., and showy fls.
A. Mexicana L. Cal prickly; caps. prickly, 6-valved.-A weed-like plant, native at the South and West, § at the North. St. 2 - 3f high, branching, armed with prickly spines. Lvs. 5 - 7' or 8' long, sessile, spinous on the margin and veins beneath. Fls. axillary and terminal, on short peduncles, 2 - 3' diam., yellow. The juice becomes in air a fine gamboge-yellow, and is esteemed for jaundice, cutaneous eruptions, sore eyes, fluxes, etc. July. - Varieties occur with ochro-leucous fls. and with large white fls. (N. Car. Curtis.)
5. MECONOPSIS, Viguier. Yellow Poppy. (Gr. µήĸcωv, a poppy; oψiς, resemblance.) Sepals 2, hirsute; petals 4; stamens ∞; style conspicuous; stigmas 4 - 6, radiating, convex, free; capsule ovoid, 1-celled, opening by four valves.- Herbs with a yellow juice, pinnately divided lvs., and yellow fls.
M. diphylla DC. Lvs. glaucous beneath, segments 5 - 7, ovate-oblong, sinuate, cauline 2, opposite, petiolate; ped. aggregated, terminal; caps. 4-valved, echi-nate-setous. - Woods, Western States. Plant 12 - 18' high. Lvs. large, 8' by 6', on petioles about the same length, terminal segment somewhat confluent. Ped. about 3' long. Petals deep yellow, orbicular, 1' diam. Sty. surpassing the stam. May. (Stylophorum Nutt.)
6. PAPAVER, L. Poppy. Fig. 229, 230, 231. (Celtic, papa, pap; a soporific food for children, composed of poppy seeds, etc.) Sepals 2, caducous; petals 4; stamens ∞; capsule 1-celled, opening by pores under the broad, persistent stigma. - Exotic herbs, with white juice, abounding in opium. Fl. buds nodding, erect in flower and fruit.
1 P. somniferum L. Opium Poppy. Glabrous and glaucous; lvs. clasping, cut-dentate; caps. globous.- with large, brilliantly white flowers, double in cultivation. St. 1 1/2 - 3f high. Lvs. 4 - 8' by 2 - 3', with rather obtuse dentures. Extensively cultivated in Europe and southern Asia for opium, a drug more generally applicable and more frequently prescribed than any other article of the materia medica. Jn. Jl. † §
2 P. dubium L. St. hispid with spreading hairs; lvs. pinnately parted, segm. incised; sep. hairy; caps. club-shaped. - Sparingly naturalized in cultivated grounds, Penn. and southward. St. about 2f high, very slender. Els. light red or scarlet, much smaller than in No. 1, on very long hairy pedicels. Jn. Jl.§
3 P. Rhaeas L. St. many-flowered, hairy; lvs. incisely pinnatiflel; caps. globous. - Distinguished from the last species chiefly by its more finely divided leaves and its globular capsule. About 2f high. Fls. very large and showy, of a deep scarlet. Varieties are produced with various shades of red and parti-colored flowers, more or less double. Jn. Jl.†
4 P. orientale L. St. l-flowered, rough; lvs. scabrous, pinnate, serrate; caps. smooth.- Native of Levant. St. 3f high. Fls. very large, and of a rich scarlet color, too brilliant to bo looked upon in the sun. Jn.†
7. ESCHSCHOLTZIA, Cham. (Named for Eschscholtz, a German botanist well known for his researches in California.) Sepals 2, cohering by their edge, caducous; petals 4; stamens ∞, adhering to the claws of the petals; stigmas 4 - 7, -sessile, 2 - 3 of them abortive; capsule pod-shaped, cylindric, 10-striate, many-seeded.- Lvs. pinnatifid, glaucous. The juice, which is colorless, exhales the odor of hydrochloric acid.
1 E. Douglasii Hook. St. branching, leafy; torus obconic; cal ovoid, with a very short, abrupt acuminatum; pet bright-yellow, with an orange spot at base. - A very showy annual, common in our gardens, native of California, Ore-gon, etc. The foliage is smooth, abundant and rich, dividing in a twice or thrice pinnatifid manner into linear segments. Fls. 2' broad. † (Chryseis Californica of Lindl. and 1st edition.)
2 E. Californica Hook. St. branching, leafy; torus funnel form, with a much dilated limb; cal. obconic; with a long acumination; fls. orange-yellow.- From California. Lvs. and color of flowers as in the preceding, except the latter are more of a reddish, orange hue.† (Chryseis crocea Lindl. and of 1st edition.)