blue, and when viewed at a little distance the stamens and bearded petals resemble a bee nestling within the calyx. † Siberia.
7.D. graudiflorum L. Lvs. palmately 5 - 7-parted, lobes linear, distant; sessile. 3-cleft pedicels longer than bract; petals shorter than calyx. - A superb perennial. Fls. double or single, in racemes, of brilliant dark blue, with a tinge of purple. † Siberia.
Observation. - A few other species may, perhaps, be found in gardens. All are showy plants, of the easiest culture.
18. ACONITUM, Tourn. Wolfsbane. Fig. 283. (Gr. without dust; because the plants grow on dry rocks.) Sepals 5, irregular, colored, upper one vaulted; petals 5, the 3 lower minute, the 2 upper on long claws, concealed beneath the upper sepal, recurved and nectariferous at the apex; styles 3 - 5; follicles 3 - 5. - Lvs. digitate or palmate. Fls. in terminal spikes.
1 A. uncinatum L. Stem flexuous; pan. rather loose, with divergent branches; lvs. palmate, 3 - 5-parted, with rhomboidal-lanceolate, cut-dentate divisions; helmet (upper sepal) exactly conical, short-beaked in front; ova. villous. - A cultivated, poisonous plant, also native, N. Y. to Ga. St. 2f high. Lvs. coriaceous, dark green, 4 - 5' wide. Fls. large, purple, 3 or 4 near the summit of each branch. Jl., Aug.
2 A. reclinatum Gray. St trailing (3 - 8f long); lvs. deeply 3 - 7-cleft, peti-olate, divisions crenate, incised or lobed; fls. while, in very loose panicles; helmet soon horizontal, elongated conical, with a straight beak in front. - Alleghany Mts., Va. and Southward. Aug.
3 A. Napellus L. Monkshood. St. straight, erect; lvs. deeply 5-cleft cut into linear segments, furrowed above; upper sep. arched at the back, lateral ones hairy inside; ova. smooth. - A poisonous plant cultivated among flowers. It is a tall, rank perennial, making quite a consequential appearance. St. 4f high, with a long spicate inflorescence at its termination. Fls. dark blue, surmounted by the vaulted upper sepal, as if hooded in a monk's cowl. Aug. There are varieties with flowers white, rose-colored, eta
19. CIMICIFUGA, L. Bugbane. (Lat. cimex, a bug, fugo, to drive away; alluding to its offensive odor.) Sepals 4 or 5, caducous; petals stamen-like, 1 - 8, small, clawed, 2-horned at apex; sta. numerous, with slender white filaments; follicles 1 - 8, dry, dehiscent. - Lvs. ternately decompound. Flowers white, in long, slender racemes.
§ CIMICIFUGA vera. Pistils 2 - 8, with a minute stigma, seeds in one row.................
Nos. 2, 3
1 C. racemosa Ell. Black Snakeroot. lfts. ovate-oblong, incisely serrate; rac. very long; caps. follicular, ovoid, sessile. - Plant resembling a tall Actaea, found in upland woods Can. to Ga. St. 4 - 8f high, with long, panicled racemes of white-sepaled and monogynous flowers. Petals 4 - 6, small. Sta. about 100 to each flower, giving the raceme the appearance of a long and slender plume. Fls. very fetid. Jn., Jl. (Actaea, L. Macrotys, Raf.)
2 C. Americana Mx. Glabrous; lvs. triternate, segm. ovate, terminal one cuneiform at base, 3-parted or 3-cleft, and incised; petals concave, sessile, 2-lobed, nectariferous at base; ova. 2 - 5, stiped, obovate and pod-shaped in fruit; sds. 6 - 8, flattened vertically. - Mts Penn. to N. Car. and Tenn. St. 3 - 6f high. Lfts. 2 - 4 long, with coarse, unequal, mucronate serratures. Fls. smaller than in C. racemosa, in a long panicle of racemes. Aug. (C. podocarpa Ell. Actaea podo-carpa DC.)
3 C. cordifolia Ph. Lvs. biternate; lfts. broadly cordate., 3 - 5-lobed; ova. 1 - 3; follicles sessile, 8 - 10-seeded. - Mts. Carolina. St 3 - 5f high, terminating in a long glabrous panicle of racemes. Sep. 5, roundish, petals spathulate, bifid, few or wanting.
20. ACTAEA, L. Baneberry. (Gr. the Elder; which plant these herbs resemble in foliage.) Sepals 4 - 5, caducous; petals 4 - 8, spatulate, long-clawed; filaments about 30, slender, white; pistil 1, with a sessile 2-lobed stigma; berry globous, with a lateral furrow, 1-celled; seeds many, smooth, compressed. - with ternately divided leaves. Fls. white, in a short, oblong raceme.
A. spicata L. β rubra. Red Baneberry. Rac. hemispherical; petals acute; pedicels slender; berries red, ovoid-obloug. - Not uncommon in rocky woods, Can. to Penn. W. to the R. Mts. Plant glabrous, 1 1/2 - 2f high, bearing 2 or 3 ample bi or triternate lvs. and a terminal short raceme of white fls. Lfts. ovate, 1 - 3' long, half as wide, incisely lobed and toothed. Petioles 4 - 7' long, somewhat glaucous. Rac. as broad as long. May. (A. rubra. Bw.) β. alba. Mx. Rac. oblong; petals truncate; pedicels of the fruit thicker than the peduncle; berries white. - Common in rocky woods, Can. to Ga. The ample leaves are precisely similar to those of a. and the distinctive characters given above are not quite constant. Specimens from Castleton, Vt., have bright red berries on thickened pedicles; from N. Y. (Torr.) have white berries on slender pedicles. The European variety has purplish black berries. May.
2i. HYDRASTIS, L. Turmeric Root. Fig. 359. (Gr. water; the plant grows in watery places.) Sepals 3, petaloid, caducous; petals 0; stamens ∞, a little shorter than the sepals; ovaries 12 or more, becoming a baccate fruit composed of 1-seeded acines aggregated into a head.- Rhizome thick, knotty, yellow, with long fibrous roots, sending up a single radical leaf and a stem which is 2-leaved and 1-flowered.
H. Canadensis L. The only species. It grows in bog meadows. Can. to Car. and Ky. Stem 6 - 12' high, becoming purplish, hairy above. St. leaves 2 only, alternate on the upper part of the stem, petiolate, palmate, with 3 - 5 lobes. Ped. terminal, solitary, 1-flowered. Sep. reddish white, of short duration. Fr. red, juicy, resembling the raspberry. Sds. nearly black. May, Jn.