§ Leaves evergreen. Racemes axillary, bractless..........................................
§ Leaves deciduous. - Racemes leafy at base................................
Nos. 2, 3
- Umbeta lateral, leafless, - Native..........................
Nos. 4, 5
Nos. 6, 7
1. C. Caroliniana Mx. CHERRY Laurel. Lvs. oblong-oblanceolate, acuminate, on short petioles, entire, coriaceous; fls. small, in numerous, dense racemes shorter than the lvs.; drupes persistent. - Along rivers, S. Car. to Fla. and La., and much cultivated. A small, beautiful evergreen tree, 30 to 50f high. Lvs. about 2 1/2' by 1', glabrous, shining above. Drupes black, juiceless, 4" long. They are considered poisonous as well as the leaves. In gardens this tree is trimmed into the semblance of walls, domes, arbors, and all manner of fantastic forms.
2 C. serotina DC. Black or Wild Cherry. Lvs. firm, oval-oblong or elliptic, acuminate, smooth, shining above, unequally glandular-serrate; petioles with 2 to 4 glands; rac. spreading, elongated. - A largo forest tree throughout the U. S. Trunk 50 to 80f high, of uniform size and undivided to the height of 20 to 30f, 2 to 4f diam. B:uk black and rough. Lvs. 3 to 5' long, 1/2 as wide. In May and June it puts forth numerous cylindric clusters of white fls. Fruit nearly black when mature, bitterish, yet pleasant to the taste, and is greedily devoured by birds. The wood, extensively used in cabinet work, is compact, fine-grained, and receives a high polish. The bark is tonic, with a strong, bitter taste.
3 C. Virginiana DC. Choke Cherry. Lvs. smooth, oval or obovate, short-pointed, thin, not shining, with sharp, subulate serralures, veins bearded on each side toward the base; petiole with 2 glands; rac. lax, short, spreading; petals orbicular. - A small tree or shrub, 5 to 20f high, in woods and hedges. Bark grayish. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, 1 to 2' wide, with a short, abrupt acumination. Fls. appearing in May. Fruit (cherries) abundant, of a dark-red color, very astringent to the taste, yet on the whole agreeable.
4 C. pumila Mx. Sand Cherry. Lvs. oblanceolate or obovate, acute, subserrate, smooth, paler beneath; umbels few-flowered, sessile, drupe ovoid. A small trailing shrub, in gravelly soils. Can. and U. S. Branches ascending, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, 1/4 as wide, very acute at each end. Fls. white, 3, 4 or 5 in each umbel, the pedicels smooth, 1' in length. Fruit small, dark red, acid but agreeable to the taste. May. (Prunus depressa Ph.)
5 C. Pennsylvanica Ait. Wild Red Cherry. Lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate, finely serrate, membranous, smooth; umbels corymbous, with elongated pedicels; drupe small, ovoid-subglobous. - A small tree, common in woods and thickets in the Northern States. The trunk rarely exceeds 25f in height, with a diam. of 6 to 8'. Bark smooth, reddish brown. Lvs. 2 to 5' long, 1/2 as wide, the fine teeth mostly glaudular, apex tapering to a long acumination. Fla white, on long (2 1/2 ') slender pedicels collected into a sort of umbel. Fruit red. very acid. - This tree is of rapid growth, and quickly succeeds a forest clearing, if neglected. May. (Prunus borealis Ph.)
6 C. Avium Moench. Duke Cherry. Ox-heart. English Cherry. Bigareau, etc. Branches erect or ascending; lvs. oblong-obovate, acuminate, hairy beneath; umbels sessile, with rather long pedicels; drupe ovoid globous, subcor-date at base. - Cultivated in gardens, fields, etc, common. Trunk 20 to 50f in height, with an oblong or pyramidal head. Lvs. 3 to 6' long, 1/2 as wide, on petioles 1 to 2' long, often with 2 glands. Fls. expanding with the leaves, white. Drupes various shades of red, firm but juicy. May. - About 75 varieties are published in American catalogues. %
7 C. vulgaris Mill. Sour Cherry. Large Red. Morello, etc. Branches spreading; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acute at apex, narrowed at base, nearly smooth; umbels subsessile, with short pedicels; drupes globous. - A smaller tree than the preceding, much cultivated. Trunk 15 to 20f high, with a roundish, compact head. Branches slender. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, § as wide, unequally serrate, on petioles 1/4 as long, with 2 glands. Fls. white, expanding sooner than the leaves, 2 or 3 from each bud, on pedicels 2/3' long. Fr. large, various shades of red, acid or subacid. Apr. - More than 50 varieties are enumerated. ‡ (Prunus Cerasus L.)
6. PRU'NUS, Tourn. Plum, Apricot. Calyx 5-cleft, regular, deciduous; petals much spreading; stamens 15 to 30; ovary 2-ovuled; drupe ovate, fleshy, generally clothed with a glaucous bloom or with a soft pubescence; nucleus compressed, smooth. - Small trees or shrubs. Lvs. convolute in vernation. Fls. white, in simple umbels from lateral buds, mostly preceding the lvs.
§ Drupe downy; stone furrowed at edges. Lvs. acuminate.................................
Nos. 8, 9
§ Drupe glabrous - umbels 1 or 2-flowered. Lvs. acute...............................
Nos. 5 - 7
- umbels 2 to 5-flowered. - Lvs. rather acute............................
Nos. 2 - 4
- Lvs. acuminate................................
1 P. Americana Marsh. Red Plum. Yellow Plum. Somewhat thorny; lvs. oblong-oval and obovate, abruptly and strongly acuminate, doubly serrate; drupes roundish oval, reddish orange, with a thick, coriaceous skin, - Hedges and low woods, U. S. and Can., often cultivated for its sweet and pleasant fruit, which is about the size of the Damson. Shrub 10 to 15f high. Lvs. 2 to 3' long, 2/3 as wide, petioles 1/4 to 1/2' long, mostly with 2 glands at the summit. Fls. preceding the lvs., 3 to i in each of the numerous umbels, white. Drupes nearly destitute of bloom, ripe in Aug. Flowers in May. ‡ (Cerasus nigra Loisel.)
2 P. maritima Wang. Beach Plum. Lvs. oval or obovate, slightly acuminate, sharply serrate; petioles with 2 glands; umbels few-flowered; pedicels short, pubescent; fr. nearly round. - A small shrub abundant on the sea-beach, particularly on Plum Island, at the mouth of Merrimac River. Very branching. Lvs. 1 to 3' long, downy-canescent beneath when young, becoming at length nearly smooth. Fls. white, 2 to 5 in each of the numerous umbels. Fr. globular, eatable, red or purple, little inferior in size to the common garden plum. Ripe in Aug., Sept. Fl. in May. (P. littoralis Bw.)
3 P. umbellata Ell. Lvs. lanceolate or lance-oval, acute or barely acuminate, obscurely serrulate; petioles glandless; umbels 3 to 5-flowered; fr. oval, small, glaucous, red. - Dry soils, in copses, etc., Savannah (Feay, Pond) to Bainbridge, Ga. and Fla. A small, bushy tree, scarcely thorny. The flowers bloom and decay before the lvs. appear. Lvs. small (about 18 ' by 0"), downy all over or often glabrous, with 1 or 2 glands, if any, on the margin near the base. Drupes pleasantly acid and much used, ripe in Jl. and Aug. Fl. in Mar.