3 C. bellidifolius Torr. & Gr. Low, nearly glabrous, tufted; root-lvs. ppatulate. petiolate, obtuse, 3-veined. cauline mostly linear; branches with 1 to 5 heads; scales herbaceous, glabrous, oblong and obtuse. - Sand bills about Wilmington, N. Car. Sts. numerous and much branched, 8 to 12' high. Scales leafy, green, pappus rather plumous than barbellate. Sept. (L. bellidifolia Mx.) 4 C. corymbdsus Torr. & Gr. St. single, stout, erect, hairy; Ivs. nearly smooth, oblanceolate, obtuse, tapering to the base, the upper small, oblong, sessile; hds. about 20, 20-flowered, in a dense corymbous cyme; scales smooth, oblong-oval, very obtuse, with a broad, scarious margin. - Swamp margins, N. Car. to Fla. St. about 3f high. Fls. pale purple. Sept., Oct. (L. corymbosa Nutt.)
7. LIA'TRIS, L. (Gr. , an emphatic prefix, , invulnerable; used as a vulnerary.) Heads few to many (5 to 60)-flowcred ; flowers all , tubular; involucre oblong, imbricate ; receptacle naked ; pappus of co capillary bristles, mostly plumous; achenia tapering to the slender base, 10-striate; styles much exserted. - Ц Herbs with simple, erect stems, alternate, entire lvs., and handsome rose-purple fls. in spicate, racemed, or paniculate lids., blooming from Aug. to Nov.
§ Heads in a corymb or thyrse - like panicle. Root fibrous...
§ Heads in a spike or a simple raceme, Root a roundish tuber (a)-
a Scales of the involucre colored and petaloid at their lengthened ends......
a Scales not petaloid, green or slightly tinged at the end (b).
b Pappus evidently plumous. Corollas (13to 60) hairy within....
b Pappus evidently plumous. Corollas (3 to 5) smoth within....
b Pappus only barbellate (smooth to the naked eye) (c).
c Heads 3 to 7 - flowered , - in one - sided spikes or racemes....
- in a regular spike, raceme (or panicle)....
c Heads 20 to 40 - flowerd, roundish, with rounded scales.....
C Heads 7 to 15-flowered. - Scales all similar, obtuse................
..Nos. 13, 14
-Scales all, or the inner only acute........
1 L. odoratissima Wiild. Vanilla-plant. Deer's-tongue. Glabrous; rt-lvs. obovate-spatulate, obtuse, 5 to 7-veined, tapering to the base, cauliue oblong, clasping; hds. about 8-flowered, in many cymes, constituting a large, loose corymb; scales all obtuse; fr. smoothish. - Pine barrens (Va.?) to Fla. and La., abundant. Sts. 1 to 3f high. Corymbs leafless. Fls. bright purple. Sept., Oct -The fleshy leaves exhale a rich fragrance (compared to Vanilla) even for years after they are dry, and are therefore by the southern planters largely mixed with their cared tobacco, to impart its fragrance to that nauseous weed.
2 L. paniculata Willd. St. simple, virgate, viscid-tomentous; rt.-lvs. spatulate-lanceolate, acute, tapering to a petiole, cauline small, appressed, lanceolate-acuminate ; hds. about 5-flowered, in an oblong, dense, thyrsoid panicle. - Damp pine barrens, Ga., Fla. St. 2 to 3f high. Scales few, all obtuse. Fls. pale purple or white. Sept, Oct.
3 L. elegans Willd. Villous-canescent above; lvs. glabrous, the radical oblanceolate, 3 to 5-veined, cauline linear, the upper bract-like, spreading; spike or raceme dense; hds. oblong-cylindrical, 4 to 5-flowered; scales lance-linear, prolonged into a colored, petaloid appendage longer than the flowers ; pappus evidently plumous. - A remarkable species, in pine barrens, Va. to Fla. and Tex. St 3 or 4f high, ending in a spike 6 to 16' long. The purple appendaged scales more showy than the florets. Aug., Sept.
4 L. squarrosa Willd. Blazing Star. Smooth or scabrous-pubescent; lvs. linear, lower ones attenuated at base; rac. flexuous, leafy; hds. few, 20 to 40-flowered, sessile or nearly so; invol. ovate-cylindric; scales large, squarrous-spreading, outer larger, leafy, inner mucronate-acuminate, scarcely colored; fls. numerous; pappus plumous. - A splendid plant, native N. Y. (Eaton) Penn. to Fla, and W. States. Sts. 2 to 3f high, thickly beset with long, linear leaves. Hds. 5 to 20, with large, brilliant purple florets. Aug. † It varies with the heads only 12 to 15-flowered (Georgia, Feay), smooth or hairy, etc.
5 L. cylindracea Mx. St. low, slender, and very leafy, smooth and somewhat hirsute, lvs. rigid, linear, mostly 1-veined; hds. few, sessile or pedicellate, cylindrical, 15 to 20-flowered; scales short, ciliate. close, rounded or obtuse, and abruptly mucronate at apex; pappus plumous. - Prairies and barrens, Mich, to Iowa (Cou-Bens) and Mo. St 6 to 18' high. Lvs. 2 to 5' by 2 to 4". Heads 1' long, rarely solitary, sometimes 10 or 12, mostly about 5. Fls. bright-purple. Jl- Sept. L. Boykinii Torr. and Gr. Slender, erect; lvs. linear, punctate, elongated, tho upper short and setaceous; hds. 3 to 5-flowered, sessile, or with short appressed ped. in a close virgate spike; scales few, the outer subulate, short, the inner lance-linear, margins scarious, tips acuminate, spreading, as long as the plumous pappus. - W. Ga. Plant nearly smooth, 1 to 2f high, with pale purple florets. Aug., Sept.
7 L. tenuifolia Nutt. Smooth, slender, simple; Ivs. narrowly linear or filiform, the lower crowded, very long, diminishing upwards to setaceous bracts; hds. 5-flowerod, crowded, on scaly, filiform ped. forming a long raceme; scales oblong, obtuse, mucronulate, outer very short; pappus plumous, scarcely longer than the villous fruit. - Pine barrens, N. Car. to Fla. Very elegant, 2 to 4f high. Rt. Ivs. resembling those of the long-leaved pine, in a crowded tuft. Eac. of purple fls.
1 to 2f, ped. 1'. Aug. - Oct.
8 L. secunda Ell. Slender, ascending and recurved ; Ivs. linear, short, the radical linear-lanceolate; rac. recurved, long, slender, with the heads all turned to the upper side (secund); invol. about 10-scaled and 5-flowered; pappus plumous (under a lens). - Dry sand hills, Mid. Car. and Ga. Sts. 1 to 3f high. Beautifully distinguished by its long (6 to 12) secund racemes. Aug., Sept.
9 L. pauciflora Ph. St. simple, glabrous; Ivs. linear; pan. (composed of simple racemes ?) virgate, leafy, branches short, with few hds.; hds. subsessile, secund, 3 to 5-flowered; scales erect, lanceolate, acute, glabrous. - Ga. (Bartram, Pursh.) A species at present unknown. Probably a var. of the last.
10 L. gracilis Ph. Pubescent, slender, simple; Ivs. linear, 1-veined, short, the lower lanceolate, obtuse, all glabrous, ciliate at base; hds. 3 to 5 to 7-flowered, on divaricate, slender, hairy pedicels, in a long virgate raceme, rarely paniculate; scales few, appressed, oblong, obtuse, shorter than the purple barbellate pappus. Dry pine barrens, Ga., Fla., Ala Plant grayish, 2 to 3f high. Hds. small. Fr. villous. Sept., Oct.