The forms found in early deposits do not approach R. canina, but a species with nearly round fruits. The present distribution is Europe, N. Africa, Siberia, or part of the North Temperate Zone. The Common Dog Rose is found in every part of Great Britain, N. to the Orkneys, and ascends to 1350 ft. in Yorkshire. It is native in Ireland and the Channel Islands.

The Dog Rose is one of those flowers that help to call up memories of pleasant rambles along the highway, and is one of the greatest ornaments of our wayside hedges, in fields removed from the roads, and in isolated bushes, as well as on commons and heaths.

It forms a certain proportion of the undergrowth in brakes and thickets or woods.

A prickly climbing shrub, the Dog Rose is a tall, arching bush, with a green or purple stem, armed with strong, equal, curved-back prickles, which serve as a protection and for climbing, smooth, shiny, with simply or doubly coarsely-toothed, rigid leaflets, the leaves being arranged each side of a stalk, egg-shaped, coarsely-toothed, the upper surface shining, the lower mostly smooth or hairy.

The Dog Rose has the shrub habit. It is a large bush, with long, spreading, arching branches. The prickles are scattered, uniform, stout, broad, equal-hooked, the base thickened. The leaves are pinnate. The leaflets are hairless, simply-toothed, the secondary nerves not glandular, acute, flat, or keeled.

The leaf-buds consist of scales with 3 projections at the tip, which are the leaf bases, and the stipules and upper part of the leaf are the 3 projecting points. The outer scale is the shortest.

Everyone welcomes the appearance of the first Dog Rose in flower in summer. The flower varies from white to pink. In this it is a whitish-pink. The sepals are unequal, owing perhaps to the arrangement of the leaves in the bud. The edges of two are covered, two are not, and in the fifth, one side is and the other not covered, and the uncovered edges are bearded.

The sepals are naked, bent back, pinnate, falling, 5, free, on the rim of an egg-shaped receptacular tube. The disk is flat, the mouth conspicuous. The flower-stalks are usually naked. The styles are distinctly hairy, free, or nearly free. The fruit is egg-shaped to pitcher-shaped, roundish, the numerous achenes being included in the scarlet hip or receptacular tube which serves in the place of a pericarp.

There are numerous 1-seeded carpels, which are clothed in long hairs, sunk in the receptacle, which is globular, open at the apex.

The Dog Rose attains a height of 8-10 ft. It begins to flower in June and continues in July. It is a perennial, deciduous shrub.

The flowers are conspicuous, wide open, and scented, and there is abundant pollen, but no honey. The flowers are homogamous, the anthers and stigma ripening together. The stigma serves as an alighting place for insects which bear pollen from other flowers. When they do not visit the flower, and in wet weather, the flowers are self-pollinated.

There is a fleshy ring surrounding the styles on the upper margin of the calyx tube, within the point where the stamens are inserted, so that the stigmas only are visible. The numerous stamens with yellow anthers add to the attractiveness of the flower. The stamens first bend outwards, while the petals are erect, the ring and stigmas serving as the only alighting place for insects, and pollen is deposited on the stigma, so that the flower is cross-pollinated. The oblique position of the flowers turned to the sun makes self-pollination possible in wet weather, and when insects do not visit the flower.

Dog Rose (Rosa canina, L.)

Photo. J. Holmes - Dog Rose (rosa Canina, L.)

The Dog Rose is visited by Heleophilus, Syritta, Meligethes, Anthrenus, Anthocomus, Cetonia, Phyllopertha, Mordella, Rhagium, Strangalia, Luperus.

The fruit is edible, and the seeds are dispersed by animals and birds, etc, and do not fall.

The Dog Rose is more or less a humus-loving plant, growing in humus soil, but is also largely a sand plant, requiring a sandy loam.

The fungi which affect roses are Peronospora rosce, Sphcerulina intermixta, Sclerotinia fructigena, Phragmidium subcorticatum, Conio-thyrium fuekelii, Asteroma roses. The large mossy galls common on this plant, and popularly known as the Robin's Pincushions, are formed by Rhodites rosce.

The plant is galled by Cecidomyia rosarum, Rhodites eglanterice, R. nervosus, and Aulacaspis roses. The beetles, Clytus arietis, Lucon murinus, Meligethes lumbaris; the Hymenoptera, Hylotoma roses, Pemphilius stramineipes, Aulax broadlii, Crabro tibialis, Andrena bimaculatus, A. roses; the Lepidoptera, Buff-tip (Pygcera bucephala), Grey Dagger (Acronycta psi), The Streamer (Cidaria derivata), Nep-ticula angustifasciella, Spilonota rosce-collana, etc.; the Heteropterous insect Capsus capillaris, the Homopteron Typhlocyba rosce, and the fly Spilographa alternata, feed on it.

Rosa, Pliny, is Latin for rose, and the second Latin name is an adjective from canis, dog. The rose was so named because the root was supposed to cure the bite of a dog.

It is called Bird Brier, Brear, Briar, Briar Rose, Briar Tree, Hep Brier, Brier Bush, Brimmle, Buck Breer, Buckie-berries, Buckie Briar, Buckies, Bucky, Bull-beef, Canker, Canker-berry, Canker-flower, Canker-rose, Cat-choops, Cat-hep, Cat-jugs, Cat-whin, Choop, Chowps, Cowitch, Daily Bread, Dogberry, Dogbeer, Dog-chowp, Dog-hip, Dog-job, Dog-jumps, Dog Rose, Eglantine, Hap, Haup, Hedgepeak, Hippans, Dog's Hippans, Hip-rose, Hipson, Horse Bramble, Huggan, Humack, Itching Berries, Lawyers, Buckie Lice, Nippernails, Nips, Pig-noses, Pixie Pears, Redberries, Soldiers, Tickler or Tickling Tommy, Yew Brimmle.

The hips of Roses were called Ticklers because boys put them down one another's backs, Daily Bread because the young shoots are eaten by children, Bull-beef because of the same reason.

" I had rather be a canker in a hedge than a rose in his grace."

Much Ado About Nothing

" To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose, And plant this thorn, this canker, Bolingbroke."