As we travel northwards from the English Channel to the north of Scotland a great change is to be noticed in the character of the meadows and pastures. This is due not only to the difference of soil in the south, a great part of this being made up of chalk, with calcareous pastures dotted with fragrant orchids and many plants not usually seen elsewhere, but also to the difference in climate. For the south coast as a rule is warmer than the Midlands, and the latter much warmer than the north of Scotland. In the south we have southern plants, some of which, such as the Cornish Heath, are allied to the plants found in the Pyrenees.

In the north of Scotland the plants of the Highland pasture are more allied to the plants that are found upon the Alps in Switzerland, where many Saxifrages and Stonecrops, and other cold-enduring plants, thrive even above the snow line. But even in the lowland meadows in the north the plants again are very different, and are known as a whole as Scottish types, though some British types found in N. England also grow there. The rocks also are much older and the soils they form very different.

The southern plants are also known as English types, excluding the Pyrenean types, and are of southern origin. It may be possible to get the pupil to note these facts, when holidays are taken in different districts, by suggesting the drawing up of a list of the plants seen in each district.