This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol2-4", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
Owing to the ephemeral character of waste ground there is not the same necessity to map exactly the vegetation of such tracts where plants vary from year to year, e.g. gardens, etc. But certain places are more permanent than others, and in such cases a survey may be made, as in the case of pastures and meadows.
The mode of studying hedgerows near villages is similar to that of hedgerows in general (see Section VI). Sandy wastes may, however, be carefully surveyed, square by square, as in the case of fields and other permanent continuous types of vegetation.
Cart-roads can be dealt with in the same ways as roads, the casuals being especially noted. Railway embankments, canal banks, may be treated much in the same way as pastures, but the actual occurrence of the casuals or aliens is the particular object in view.