§ I. Herbs with square stems, opposite leaves, flowers lip-shaped in whorls or cymes, four seeds or nutlets. N.O. Labiatae; exceptions: Lycopus (6) and Salvia (7). This order includes about 20 British genera. The following are examples;
Structure and Habit.
Mentha . .
Mint . . .
Fragrant herbs, many species and varieties.
Small, fragrant herbs. 2 species, common.
Dead Nettle .
Leaves resemble nettle, but stingless.
i. album .
White D . .
Flowers white, large, tube curved, perennial.
Purple D .
Wastes . .
Rose-purple, a common weed, foetid, annual.
Flowers rich yellow, whorled, perennial.
Four species, very similar to dead nettle.
Nepeta . .
Ground Ivy .
Creeping plant, blue flowers, leaves reniform.
Erect, hoary, white flowers, woolly leaves.
Violet flowers in dense spike, two leaves at base.
Two species, larger blue, smaller pink flowered.
§ 2. Herbs with irregular flowers, except Verbascum (35) and Veronica (3), usually showy, some parasitic, others poisonous. Seeds usually contained in a capsule. N.O. Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae. These orders include nearly 20 British genera, of which the following are types:
Tall spikes, yellow flowers. 6 species.
Veronica (3) .
N.O. Scrophulariaceae, but with 2 stamens only.
White flowers with pretty spots, 6 inches high.
Fields . .
Yellow flowers, seeds rattle in ripe capsule.
Yellow blossoms four times as long as calyx.
Rose or crimson, sharp pointed seed vessel.
Figwort , .
Square shining stem, foetid ; flowers brown.
Purple, thimble-shaped, spotted flowers in spikes.
Rose-purple, sepals longer than corolla.
3 trailing and 4 erect species.
Walls . .
Purplish flowers, capsules buried in crevices.
ii. vulgaris .
Yellow T. .
Yellow, 2 feet high, like a Snapdragon.
Musk . . .
Handsome yellow flowers, stem erect, hollow.
Fleshy stems and leaves, turn black in drying.
Woods . .
Fleshy parasite under elm, hazel and other trees.