This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Petiolate, having a leaf-stalk.
Petiole, a leaf-stalk.
Phanerogam, a flowering plant.
Pilose, sparsely covered with rather long hairs.
Pinnate, when several segments succeed each other on each side of a petiole, compared to the branches of a feather.
Pinnatifid, lobed in a pinnate manner.
Pistil, the portion of the flower comprising the ovary, style, and stigma.
Placenta, the portion of the ovary to which the ovules are attached.
Pollen, fertilising powder contained in the anthers.
Pollination, the act of dusting the stigma with pollen.
Pollinium, the pollen-mass of an Orchid.
Polygamous, bearing hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers at the same time.
Polymorphic, variable in shape or form.
Polypetalous Flowers, having the petals free from one another.
Premorse, bitten off.
Prickle, a sharply pointed excrescence on a branch or leaf, etc.
Pteridophytes, Fern plants.
Puberulent, feebly pubescent.
Pubescent, downy, furnished with fine, soft, short hairs.
Raceme, an inflorescence in which stalked flowers are borne on a central stem, the lowest flowers opening first.
Rachis, the stalk of a compound leaf; the primary axis of certain kinds of inflorescence.
Radical, springing from the root.
Radicle, the embryo root.
Ray Florets, the outer flowers of the Compositae; cf. Disc Florets.
Receptacle, the top portion of the axis of a flower which bears the floral envelope and the male and female organs; also the axis bearing the florets in Compositae.
Reflexed, bent back.
Regular, divided equally.
Reniform, kidney-shaped or bean-shaped.
Reticulated, like a network.
Retuse, very obtuse or truncate and slightly indented.
Rhizome, a creeping, prostrate underground stem, bearing erect or sometimes prostrate shoots.
Ringent, strongly 2-lipped and gaping.
Rootstock, the rhizome; or the crown of the root.
Rosette, a somewhat circular group of leaves arranged in a close and spreading manner, often flat on the ground; e.g. Ramondia.
Runcinate, pinnatifid, with the lobes pointing backwards; e.g. a Dandelion leaf.
Runner, a slender, prostrate, and generally rooting stem-branch.
Scabrous, rough to the touch.
Scale, a thin, disc-like growth on the exposed surface of some leaves and stems.
Scape, a naked flower-stem springing direct from the root and bearing a single flower.
Scarious, thin and more or less transparent and not green; scaly.
Seed, a fertilised ovule.
Sepal, one of the calyx-leaves.
Serrate, edged like a saw.
Setaceous, like a bristle.
Shrub, a woody perennial plant without a main trunk.
Silicule, a short seed-pod in Cruciferous plants, such as Draba; adj. Siliculose.
Siliqua, a linear seed-pod in Cruciferous plants, such as Wallflower; adj. Siliquose.
Sinuous Or Sinuate, wavy; when teeth on the margin of a leaf are broad and irregular.
Spadix, a fleshy spike, as in Arum maculatum.
Spathe, a sheath-like leaf enveloping a flower, as in Arum.
Spathulate, broadened in the short upper half and narrowly contracted below.
Species, a unit of a genus of greater or less affinity.
Spike, a simple inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a simple axis.
Spores, the powdery grains of Mosses, Ferns, etc., which correspond to the 'seeds' in flowering plants.
Spur, a prolonged portion of a flower, usually somewhat tubular.
Stamen, the male organ of a flower considered as a whole.
Standard, the large upper petal of a Leguminous flower.
Stellate, star-shaped; often applied to certain hairs.
Sterile, having stamens, but no pistils; barren.
Stigma, the receptive upper portion of a pistil, where the pollen is dusted. The adj. stigmatic means sticky.
Stipulate, possessing stipules.
Stipules, leaf-like appendages, often in pairs and winged at the junction of leaves with the stem.
Stolon, a horizontal runner or stem-branch.
Stomata, the minute pores in the epidermis of a leaf, especially on the under side; sing. Stoma.
Striate, marked with parallel longitudinal lines.
Style, the central portion of the pistil which bears the stigma.
Superior, applied to an ovary which is free from and not enclosed by the floral envelope.
Tap-Root, the main descending root.
Teeth, small pointed lobes on the margins of leaves, etc.
Tendril, a thread-like organ used for climbing.
Terete, long and cylindrical.
Ternate, in threes.
Testa, the outer coat of seeds.
Thalamus, the receptacle.
Thallus, a vegetative body not differentiated into stem and leaf.
Thorn, a sharply pointed extremity of a branch or stalk having a woody centre; a spine.
Throat, the upper part of a corolla-tube.
Thyrsoid, applied to a narrow, pyramidal panicle, such as the inflorescence of Campanula thyrsoides.
Tomentose, covered with tomentum or dense, white hair.
Tomentum, a thick coating of short, cottony hairs, usually whitish or grey; e.g. Edelweiss.
Transpiration, the act of giving off water from the leaves of a plant, through the stomata.
Truncate, ending abruptly, as if cut off square.
Tuber, a short, thick underground stem containing food material, such as an Artichoke.
Tuberculate, covered with small obtuse, wart-like excrescences.
Umbel, an inflorescence in which the flower-stalks radiate from a common point and are nearly of the same length; e.g. Carrot.
Unisexual Flowers, are those which contain either male or female organs, but not both.
Urceolate, pitcher-shaped, or urn-shaped.
Vascular, built up of vessels.
Vermicular Or Vermiform,, worm-like.
Vernation, the state of leaves in bud.
Versatile Anthers, are those which are balanced on the filament.
Vesicle, a bladder.
Viscous, sticky, clammy.
Viviparous, applied to the production of young plants (not seeds) attached to the parent plant.
Whorl, three or more leaves or flowers arranged around the stem on the same level; e.g. Galium, Gentiana lutea.
Wing, a prolongation of a fruit or seed or of a stem; the side petal of a Leguminous flower.
Woolly, when the hairs are long and loose, like wool.
The best Glossary of Botanic Terms is that by Dr. B. Daydon Jackson; 2nd Ed. 1905. The author regrets he had not it before him when compiling the above.