Lappula Echinata Gilib. (Echinospermum Lappula Lehm)

Stem branched in the upper part, hispid and grey like the whole plant. Fruit-stalks erect. Flowers in small axillary clusters, sky-blue. Nutlets finely tubercled outside, the side angles edged with 2 rows of hooked hairs.

Dry, waste places in the plains and sub-Alps. June to August.


Most of Europe, Western and Northern Asia, Japan, N. Africa.

Lappula Deflexa Garcke (Echinospermum Deflexum Lehm)

Fruit-stalks reflexed. Stem branching from the middle or lower. Leaves lanceolate, the upper ones sessile. Fruit winged and bordered with only one row of hooked bristles. Flowers small, blue. Scarcely distinguishable from the last except by the fruit.

Stony places and shady gorges in the mountains. June to August. Seen by the author as high as about 6600 feet in Southern Savoy (above Lanslebourg).


Switzerland, Savoy, Dauphiny, Central and Northern Europe (Norway), Altai, Siberia.

Asperugo L. Asperugo Procumbens L. Madwort (The Only Species)

A coarse, straggling weed; annual. Stems branched, hispid like the leaves, climbing or recumbent, and clinging to objects by small prickles which are turned downwards. Leaves rough, oblong-elliptic. Flowers small, 1 or 2 together in the leaf-axils. Corolla violet at first, then blue, rarely white. Tube whitish Throat furnished with scales. Calyx-lobes 5, large and irregular, enlarged after flowering and concealing the fruit.

Rubbish-heaps and waste places and fields near dwellings; changeable and erratic. June to August.


Europe, including Norway and the Alps, Pyrenees and other mountain ranges, but not everywhere in Switzerland; Western Asia, N.W. India, N. Africa. A weed of cultivation in parts of Britain.

Lycopsis L. Lycopsis Arvensis L. Small Bugloss

A coarse annual covered with small, stiff hairs. Stems branched, 1-1 1/2 feet. Leaves lanceolate, sinuate and often toothed. Flowers in terminal spikes (usually forked). Corolla pale blue, small, with the tube curved in the middle. Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Nuts wrinkled as in Anchusa.

Sandy fields and waste places from the plains to the lower Swiss Alps (at 5000 feet near Zinal). June to August.


Europe, N. Asia, N. America and other parts of the world where introduced by cultivation. British.

Pulmonaria L

Perennial herbs with rather large blue or purple flowers. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-cleft. Corolla with a straight tube, without scales, and a spreading 5-lobed limb. Nuts smooth.

A very small European genus.

Pulmonaria Angustifolia L. (P. Azurea Bess)

Stems 6-12 inches high, erect, leafy. Leaves not spotted. Radical leaves lanceolate, 8-10 times as broad as long, lengthened into a broadly-winged leaf-stalk; stem-leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, sessile, the lower ones slightly attenuated at the base, the upper ones amplexicaul. Leaves and calyx covered with short, spreading and glandular hairs. Corolla reddish at first, and then a deep azure-blue, flowers in short racemes. Calyx cylindrical, cleft to the middle, teeth lanceolate-acute. Calyx pendent after flowering. A very beautiful plant.

Bushy Alpine places up to 6500 feet; local.


Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Pyrenees, Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor.