This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Stem 1 1/2-2 1/2 feet high, erect, more or less covered with soft hairs or nearly glabrous. Stem-leaves wavy at the margins or toothed, sessile, lanceolate, acute, lower leaves cordate-ovate, stalked, sharply-toothed, the cymes formed at the cordate base broad and open. Flowers yellow. Capitula handsome, 2 inches across.
Mountain woods and shady Alpine and sub-alpine situations; 3000-6500 feet; local. June to August.
Carpathians, Eastern Alps (not in Switzerland), Sudetic Mountains.
Stem about a foot high, hollow, covered with rough hairs like the leaves, simple, leafy. Leaves lanceolate; root-leaves often ovate, entire, or coarsely dentate, or with a wavy margin; lower stem-leaves stalked, upper ones sessile, with a narrowed or rarely a rounded base. Capitulum solitary, large, and handsome, bright yellow.
Among boulders and on stony pastures and on debris of the Alps (avoiding limestone); 5000-7600 feet. July, August.
More strictly Alpine, a description of this species is given because it is often confused with other plants, and by novices even with Arnica.
Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, Spanish Pyrenees. Not in the Jura.
Stem erect, 1-1 1/2 feet high, glandular villous, bearing 1-3 capitula, and 1 or 2 pairs of small leaves, naked above. Leaves entire, oval-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, glabrescent, narrowed into a short foot-stalk, and forming a rosette; stem-leaves opposite, lanceolate, sessile, much smaller. Flowers bright orange-yellow. Capitula 2-2 1/2 inches in diameter, though frequently not perfect. A well-known, bitter, medicinal plant.
Alpine and sub-Alpine pastures and clearings in woods; 3400-8000 feet. Especially on granitic or siliceous soil, where it is sometimes very numerous. June to August.
Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, Erzgebirge, Black Forest, Vosges, rare in the Jura, Cevennes, Pyrenees, and the greater part of Europe as far north as Sweden, N. Asia.
Easily grown in deep soil - a mixture of loam and peat or leaf-mould is best. Increased by seed or by division.
Leaves alternate, toothed or divided, rarely entire. Flower-heads in terminal corymbs. Disk-florets yellow, and tubular ray-florets yellow, blue, purple, or white, spreading. Involucre cylindrical or nearly hemispherical, with 1 or 2 rows of linear bracts, often tipped with brown. Receptacle without scales. Achenes cylindrical, with a pappus of simple hairs, usually soft and white.
One of the largest genera, if not the largest, in existence, and spread over the whole globe, though most of the species are confined to a small area only. Several species which have not the small outer bracts to the involucre were distinguished by Linnaeus under the name of Cineraria, but the character has proved so uncertain that modern botanists have given it up.